1,028 research outputs found

    Breakdown of a conservation law in incommensurate systems

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    We show that invariance properties of the Lagrangian of an incommensurate system, as described by the Frenkel Kontorova model, imply the existence of a generalized angular momentum which is an integral of motion if the system remains floating. The behavior of this quantity can therefore monitor the character of the system as floating (when it is conserved) or locked (when it is not). We find that, during the dynamics, the non-linear couplings of our model cause parametric phonon excitations which lead to the appearance of Umklapp terms and to a sudden deviation of the generalized momentum from a constant value, signalling a dynamical transition from a floating to a pinned state. We point out that this transition is related but does not coincide with the onset of sliding friction which can take place when the system is still floating.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, typed with RevTex, submitted to Phys. Rev. E Replaced 27-03-2001: changes to text, minor revision of figure

    Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

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    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 μ\mum ). In this paper we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (i) surface (ii) tropospheric clouds (iii) tropospheric gases (iv) stratospheric composition and (v) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities and limitations of the instrument suite, and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors - sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly faster read-out times. We find that JWST has very significant potential for advancing Titan science, with a spectral resolution exceeding the Cassini instrument suite at near-infrared wavelengths, and a spatial resolution exceeding HST at the same wavelengths. In particular, JWST will be valuable for time-domain monitoring of Titan, given a five to ten year expected lifetime for the observatory, for example monitoring the seasonal appearance of clouds. JWST observations in the post-Cassini period will complement those of other large facilities such as HST, ALMA, SOFIA and next-generation ground-based telescopes (TMT, GMT, EELT).Comment: 50 pages, including 22 figures and 2 table

    Haptoglobin Polymorphism: A Novel Genetic Risk Factor for Celiac Disease Development and Its Clinical Manifestations

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    Background: Haptoglobin (Hp) α-chain alleles 1 and 2 account for 3 phenotypes that may influence the course of inflammatory diseases via biologically important differences in their antioxidant, scavenging, and immunomodulatory properties. Hp1-1 genotype results in the production of small dimeric, Hp2-1 linear, and Hp2-2 cyclic polymeric haptoglobin molecules. We investigated the haptoglobin polymorphism in patients with celiac disease and its possible association to the presenting symptoms. Methods: We studied 712 unrelated, biopsy-proven Hungarian celiac patients (357 children, 355 adults; severe malabsorption 32.9%, minor gastrointestinal symptoms 22.8%, iron deficiency anemia 9.4%, dermatitis herpetiformis 15.6%, silent disease 7.2%, other 12.1%) and 384 healthy subjects. We determined haptoglobin phenotypes by gel electrophoresis and assigned corresponding genotypes. Results: Hp2-1 was associated with a significant risk for celiac disease (P = 0.0006, odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.20–1.98; prevalence 56.9% in patients vs 46.1% in controls). It was also overrepresented among patients with mild symptoms (69.2%) or silent disease (72.5%). Hp2-2 was less frequent in patients than in controls (P = 0.0023), but patients having this phenotype were at an increased risk for severe malabsorption (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.60–3.07) and accounted for 45.3% of all malabsorption cases. Celiac and dermatitis herpetiformis patients showed similar haptoglobin phenotype distributions. Conclusions: The haptoglobin polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to celiac disease and its clinical presentations. The predominant genotype in the celiac population was Hp2-1, but Hp2-2 predisposed to a more severe clinical course. The phenotype-dependent effect of haptoglobin may result from the molecule’s structural and functional properties

    Accelerating progress towards the SDGs: Collaborative policymaking in sanitation for integrated benefits in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    In 2020, 54% of the world had access to safe sanitation, but access further reduces to 21% in sub-Saharan Africa . With only eight years left to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is an urgent need to accelerate action in the sanitation sector. Previous academic research highlights sanitation as vital for supporting cross-cutting outcomes in health, economics, climate, gender equality, and the environment. However, there is a gap in knowledge outputs for policymakers to highlights how action in sanitation can leverage investment from agencies and ministries to achieve multiple SDGs. Our transdisciplinary team (academics, policymakers, and practitioners) co-developed actionable outputs for diverse audiences to fill this gap, building on an existing global evidence review identifying 130 synergies between sanitation and the SDGs. We identified priority focus areas influencing sanitation policies and financing in Sub-Saharan Africa to collaboratively develop visual aids, policy briefs, and this academic publication to engage cross-sectoral audiences. Our approach offers insights into the value of theoretical knowledge for policy outcomes in the sanitation sector. It is most likely that SDG6 Targets particularly related to sanitation will not be met by 2030 as the sector suffers from under investment. Co-creation between academia and the development sector is critical for consolidating knowledge/research and development practice to influence investment, progress and innovation

    Reef Coral Reproduction in the Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica, Panamá, and the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). VI. Agariciidae, Pavona clavus

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    The reproductive ecology of the zooxanthellate reef coral Pavona clavus was investigated at several sites in Costa Rica, Panama, and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) over the period 1985–2009. Pavona clavus displayed stable gonochorism as only five hermaphrodites were found in 590 samples. At four of five locations, sex ratios were skewed toward female dominance; however, at Saboga Island (Panama) male colonies predominated. In Panama, sexual maturity was observed in an estimated eight year old female colony, and several colonies of 10–20 years of age demonstrated gametogenesis. Sexual activity was observed at all study sites, but gamete development occurred in only 14–31% of colonies sampled sporadically. Seasonality of gametogenic activity occurred predominantly during the warm/wet season, June to August, at mainland sites (Cano Island, Costa Rica, and Gulfs of Chiriqui and Panama, Panama). This pattern was repeated in the Galapagos Islands, but mainly from March to May when seasonally high sea temperatures and rainfall prevailed there. Histological sampling and field observations indicated that spawning was centered around the full moon, most frequently on lunar day 17, and near sunset (1,800 h). Mean fecundity (mature ova cm-2 live tissue) estimates were significantly different for two sites and ranged from ~1,780 (Saboga Island, Gulf of Panama, seasonally upwelling) to ~4,280 (Uva Is, Gulf of Chiriqui, nonupwelling). Assuming three annual spawning events colony-1 (August, September, October), extrapolation of minimum and maximum fecundities yield 5,340 and 12,840 ova cm-2 year-1. Seasonal, lunar, and diel spawning patterns in nine zooxanthellate species at Uva Island indicate asynchronous coral community spawning