180 research outputs found

    Low-dose coronary calcium scoring CT using a dedicated reconstruction filter for kV-independent calcium measurements

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    In this prospective, pilot study, we tested a kV-independent coronary artery calcium scoring CT protocol, using a novel reconstruction kernel (Sa36f). From December 2018 to November 2019, we performed an additional research scan in 61 patients undergoing clinical calcium scanning. For the standard protocol (120 kVp), images were reconstructed with a standard, medium-sharp kernel (Qr36d). For the research protocol (automated kVp selection), images were reconstructed with a novel kernel (Sa36f). Research scans were sequentially performed using a higher (cohort A, n = 31) and a lower (cohort B, n = 30) dose optimizer setting within the automatic system with customizable kV selection. Agatston scores, coronary calcium volumes, and radiation exposure of the standard and research protocol were compared. A phantom study was conducted to determine inter-scan variability. There was excellent correlation for the Agatston score between the two protocols (r = 0.99); however, the standard protocol resulted in slightly higher Agatston scores (29.4 [0-139.0] vs 17.4 [0-158.2], p = 0.028). The median calcium volumes were similar (11.5 [0-109.2] vs 11.2 [0-118.0] mm(3); p = 0.176), and the number of calcified lesions was not significantly different (p = 0.092). One patient was reclassified to another risk category. The research protocol could be performed at a lower kV and resulted in a substantially lower radiation exposure, with a median volumetric CT dose index of 4.1 vs 5.2 mGy, respectively (p < 0.001). Our results showed that a consistent coronary calcium scoring can be achieved using a kV-independent protocol that lowers radiation doses compared to the standard protocol

    Registry of Aortic Diseases to Model Adverse Events and Progression (ROADMAP) in Uncomplicated Type B Aortic Dissection: Study Design and Rationale

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    PURPOSE To describe the design and methodological approach of a multicenter, retrospective study to externally validate a clinical and imaging-based model for predicting the risk of late adverse events in patients with initially uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (uTBAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS The Registry of Aortic Diseases to Model Adverse Events and Progression (ROADMAP) is a collaboration between 10 academic aortic centers in North America and Europe. Two centers have previously developed and internally validated a recently developed risk prediction model. Clinical and imaging data from eight ROADMAP centers will be used for external validation. Patients with uTBAD who survived the initial hospitalization between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013, with follow-up until 2020, will be retrospectively identified. Clinical and imaging data from the index hospitalization and all follow-up encounters will be collected at each center and transferred to the coordinating center for analysis. Baseline and follow-up CT scans will be evaluated by cardiovascular imaging experts using a standardized technique. RESULTS The primary end point is the occurrence of late adverse events, defined as aneurysm formation (≄6 cm), rapid expansion of the aorta (≄1 cm/y), fatal or nonfatal aortic rupture, new refractory pain, uncontrollable hypertension, and organ or limb malperfusion. The previously derived multivariable model will be externally validated by using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. CONCLUSION This study will show whether a recent clinical and imaging-based risk prediction model for patients with uTBAD can be generalized to a larger population, which is an important step toward individualized risk stratification and therapy.Keywords: CT Angiography, Vascular, Aorta, Dissection, Outcomes Analysis, Aortic Dissection, MRI, TEVAR© RSNA, 2022See also the commentary by Rajiah in this issue

    Search for upward-going showers with the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Given its operation time and wide field of view, the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sufficiently sensitive to detect upward-going events when used in monocular mode. Upward-going air showers are a possible interpretation of the recent events reported by the ANITA Collaboration in the energy range above 1017 eV. The Pierre Auger FD data can be used to support or constrain this interpretation. If confirmed, it would require either new phenomena or significant modifications to the standard model of particle physics. To prepare this search, a set of quality selection criteria was defined by using 10% of the available FD data from 14 years of operation. This subset was mainly used to clean the data from improperly labelled laser events that had been used to monitor the quality of the atmosphere. The potential background for this search consists of cosmic-ray induced air showers with specific geometric configurations which, in a monocular reconstruction, can be reconstructed erroneously as upward-going events. To distinguish candidates from these false positives, to calculate the exposure, and to estimate the expected background, dedicated simulations for signal (upward-going events) and background (downward-going events) have been performed. The detector exposure is large enough to strongly constrain the interpretation of ANITA anomalous events. Preliminary results of the analysis after unblinding the data set are presented

    Probing invisible neutrino decay with KM3NeT-ORCA

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    In the era of precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters, upcoming neutrino experiments will also be sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. KM3NeT/ORCA is a neutrino detector optimised for measuring atmospheric neutrinos from a few GeV to around 100 GeV. In this paper, the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ORCA detector to neutrino decay has been explored. A three-flavour neutrino oscillation scenario, where the third neutrino mass state Îœ3\nu_3 decays into an invisible state, e.g. a sterile neutrino, is considered. We find that KM3NeT/ORCA would be sensitive to invisible neutrino decays with 1/α3=τ3/m3<1801/\alpha_3=\tau_3/m_3 < 180~ps/eV\mathrm{ps/eV} at 90%90\% confidence level, assuming true normal ordering. Finally, the impact of neutrino decay on the precision of KM3NeT/ORCA measurements for Ξ23\theta_{23}, Δm312\Delta m^2_{31} and mass ordering have been studied. No significant effect of neutrino decay on the sensitivity to these measurements has been found.Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures, bibliography updated, typos correcte

    A 3‐Year Sample of Almost 1,600 Elves Recorded Above South - America by the Pierre Auger Cosmic‐Ray Observatory

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    Status and performance of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory, whose purpose is to lower the energy threshold of the observatory down to 1016.5 eV, and to measure the muonic content of air showers directly. These measurements will significantly contribute to the determination of primary particle masses in the range between the second knee and the ankle, to the study of hadronic interaction models with air showers, and, in turn, to the understanding of the muon puzzle. The underground muon detector of AMIGA is concomitant to two triangular grids of water-Cherenkov stations with spacings of 433 and 750 m; each grid position is equipped with a 30 m2 plastic scintillator buried at 2.3 m depth. After the engineering array completion in early 2018 and general improvements to the design, the production phase commenced. In this work, we report on the status of the underground muon detector, the progress of its deployment, and the performance achieved after two years of operation. The detector construction is foreseen to finish by mid-2022
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