5,572 research outputs found

    Late movement of basin-edge lobate scarps on Mercury

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    Basin-edge lobate scarps are a sub-type of tectonic shortening structure on the surface of Mercury that have formed at the edge of volcanic units that fill or partly fill impact basins. We have performed a global survey of these features and find that they are widespread in basins across the planet. We obtained model ages from crater size–frequency distribution analysis for a subset of our surveyed basins, for both the smooth plains infill and for the last resolvable tectonic activity on the associated basin-edge scarps. Our results indicate that some of these lobate scarps were still accumulating strain in the late Mansurian (approximately 1 Ga). From a photogeological assessment, we find that the orientations of these basin-edge lobate scarps are similar to those reported for the global population of lobate scarps in earlier studies, appearing to align ∼north–south at low latitudes and ∼east–west at higher latitudes. However, reassessing these landforms’ orientation with artificially illuminated topographic data does not allow us to rule out the effect of illumination bias. We propose that these landforms, the result of crustal shortening in response to global contraction, formed along the interface between the basin floor and the smooth plains unit, which acted as a mechanical discontinuity along which shortening strains were concentrated

    3D Extension at Plate Boundaries Accommodated by Interacting Fault Systems

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    Complex patterns of normal faults with multiple orientations and/or highly curved shapes have been traditionally explained by successive tectonic phases of 2-dimensional deformation. Alternatively, multiple fault sets have been proposed to develop simultaneously and in orthorhombic symmetry during a single phase of 3-dimensional deformation. We use analogue models of normal faults to demonstrate that, without the influence of pre-existing structures, 3D extension is preferentially accommodated by the alternate, rather than simultaneous, development of faults with different trends. By means of stress-driven interactions, 3D deformation can be partitioned into coupled systems of normal faults, which display geometries commonly observed in tectonic settings affected by interacting plate boundaries. Under radial extension, deformation is accommodated by major curvilinear grabens coupled with minor perpendicular faults, resulting in the triple junctions of grabens observed in Afar. On the other hand, the alternate development of perpendicular faults accommodates synchronous bi-directional and mutually perpendicular extension, giving the same fault pattern observed in the Barents Sea rift-shear margin

    3D extension at plate boundaries accommodated by interacting fault systems

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    Complex patterns of normal faults with multiple orientations and/or highly curved shapes have been traditionally explained by successive tectonic phases of 2-dimensional deformation. Alternatively, multiple fault sets have been proposed to develop simultaneously and in orthorhombic symmetry during a single phase of 3-dimensional deformation. We use analogue models of normal faults to demonstrate that, without the influence of pre-existing structures, 3D extension is preferentially accommodated by the alternate, rather than simultaneous, development of faults with different trends. By means of stress-driven interactions, 3D deformation can be partitioned into coupled systems of normal faults, which display geometries commonly observed in tectonic settings affected by interacting plate boundaries. Under radial extension, deformation is accommodated by major curvilinear grabens coupled with minor perpendicular faults, resulting in the triple junctions of grabens observed in Afar. On the other hand, the alternate development of perpendicular faults accommodates synchronous bi-directional and mutually perpendicular extension, giving the same fault pattern observed in the Barents Sea rift-shear margin

    A sensitivity study of triboson production processes to dimension-6 EFT operators at the LHC

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    We present the first parton-level study of anomalous effects in triboson production in both fully and semi-leptonic channels in proton-proton collisions at 13TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensitivity to anomalies induced by a minimal set of bosonic dimension-6 operators from the Warsaw basis is evaluated with specific analyses for each final state. A likelihood-based strategy is employed to assess the most sensitive kinematic observables per channel, where the contribution of Effective Field Theory operators is parameterized at either the linear or quadratic level. The impact of the mutual interference terms of pairs of operators on the sensitivity is also examined. This benchmark study explores the complementarity and overlap in sensitivity between different triboson measurements and paves the way for future analyses at the LHC experiments. The statistical combination of the considered final states allows setting stringent bounds on five bosonic Wilson coefficients

    Interpretation and processing of ASTER data for geological mapping and granitoids detection in the Saghro massif (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

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    Satellite remote sensing analysis is extensively used for geological mapping in arid regions. However, it is not considered readily applicable to the mapping of metamorphic and igneous terrains, where lithological contacts are less predictable. In this work, ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data were used to clarify the geological framework of the Precambrian basement in the Saghro massif (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco). The Saghro basement is composed of low-grade metasedimentary sequences of the Saghro Group (Cryogenian), intruded by calc-alkaline plutons of late Cryogenian age. These rocks are unconformably covered by volcanic to volcaniclastic series of Ediacaran age that are broadly coeval with granitoid plutons. All of these units are cut by a complex network of faults associated with hydrothermal fluid flows, which developed during and shortly after the emplacement of the volcanic rocks. The geological mapping of the Precambrian units was challenging in particular for the Edicaran granitoid bodies, because they are characterized by very similar compositions and a widespread desert varnish coating. For this reason, a two-stage approach has been adopted. In the first step, false color composites, band ratios, and principal components analyses on visible and near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands were chosen and interpreted on the basis of the field and petrographic knowledge of the lithologies in order to detect major lithological contacts and mineralized faults. In the second step, a major effort was dedicated to the detection of granitoid plutons using both thermal infrared (TIR) and VNIR/SWIR data. The ASTER TIR bands were used to evaluate Reststrahlen and Christiansen effects in the granitoid rocks spectra, whereas VNIR/SWIR false color composite and ratio images were chosen directly on the basis of the granitoid spectra (derived from both spectrophotometric analyses of samples and selected sites in the ASTER image). Finally, spectral angle mapper (SAM) and supervised maximum-likelihood classifications (MLL) were carried out on VNIR/SWIR data, mainly to evaluate their potential for discriminating granitoid rocks. The results have further demonstrated the value of ASTER data for geological mapping of basement units, particularly if the processing has been based on a detailed knowledge of the rock mineral assemblages. In addition, the analytical comparison of ASTER TIR and VNIR/SWIR data has demonstrated that the latter are very effective in the distinction of granitoids with very similar silica content, because they can be recognized by secondary effects related to their hydrothermal and surface alterations (K-feldspar kaolinitization, plagioclase saussiritization, substitution of mafic minerals with oxides, inhomogeneous desert varnish coating, and clay/oxide proportions)

    Recent Advances in the Development of Biomimetic Materials

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    : In this review, we focused on recent efforts in the design and development of materials with biomimetic properties. Innovative methods promise to emulate cell microenvironments and tissue functions, but many aspects regarding cellular communication, motility, and responsiveness remain to be explained. We photographed the state-of-the-art advancements in biomimetics, and discussed the complexity of a "bottom-up" artificial construction of living systems, with particular highlights on hydrogels, collagen-based composites, surface modifications, and three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting applications. Fast-paced 3D printing and artificial intelligence, nevertheless, collide with reality: How difficult can it be to build reproducible biomimetic materials at a real scale in line with the complexity of living systems? Nowadays, science is in urgent need of bioengineering technologies for the practical use of bioinspired and biomimetics for medicine and clinics

    Somatostatin analogs for gastric carcinoids : for many, but not all

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    Gastric carcinoids (GCs) are classified as: type I, related to hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), type II, associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and type III, which is normogastrinemic. The management of type-I gastric carcinoids (GC1s) is still debated, because of their relatively benign course. According to the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society guidelines endoscopic resection is indicated whenever possible; however, it is not often feasible because of the presence of a multifocal disease, large lesions, submucosal invasion or, rarely, lymph node involvement. Therefore, somatostatin analogs (SSAs) have been proposed as treatment for GC1s in view of their antisecretive, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects. However, in view of the high cost of this therapy, its possible side effects and the relatively benign course of the disease, SSAs should be reserved to specific subsets of "high risk patients", i.e. , those patients with multifocal or recurrent GCs. Indeed, it is reasonable that, after the development of a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm in patients with a chronic predisposing condition (such as CAG), other enterochromaffin-like cells can undergo neoplastic proliferation, being chronically stimulated by hypergastrinemia. Therefore, definite indications to SSAs treatment should be established in order to avoid the undertreatment or overtreatment of GCs

    The Cratering History of Asteroid (21) Lutetia

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    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft passed by the main belt asteroid (21) Lutetia the 10th July 2010. With its ~100km size, Lutetia is one of the largest asteroids ever imaged by a spacecraft. During the flyby, the on-board OSIRIS imaging system acquired spectacular images of Lutetia's northern hemisphere revealing a complex surface scarred by numerous impact craters, reaching the maximum dimension of about 55km. In this paper, we assess the cratering history of the asteroid. For this purpose, we apply current models describing the formation and evolution of main belt asteroids, that provide the rate and velocity distributions of impactors. These models, coupled with appropriate crater scaling laws, allow us to interpret the observed crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) and constrain the cratering history. Thanks to this approach, we derive the crater retention age of several regions on Lutetia, namely the time lapsed since their formation or global surface reset. We also investigate the influence of various factors -like Lutetia's bulk structure and crater obliteration- on the observed crater SFDs and the estimated surface ages. From our analysis, it emerges that Lutetia underwent a complex collisional evolution, involving major local resurfacing events till recent times. The difference in crater density between the youngest and oldest recognized units implies a difference in age of more than a factor of 10. The youngest unit (Beatica) has an estimated age of tens to hundreds of Myr, while the oldest one (Achaia) formed during a period when the bombardment of asteroids was more intense than the current one, presumably around 3.6Gyr ago or older.Comment: Accepted by PSS, to appear on Lutetia Flyby special issu

    Mapping and Monitoring Urban Environment through Sentinel-1 SAR Data: A Case Study in the Veneto Region (Italy)

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    Focusing on a sustainable and strategic urban development, local governments and public administrations, such as the Veneto Region in Italy, are increasingly addressing their urban and territorial planning to meet national and European policies, along with the principles and goals of the 2030 Agenda for the Sustainable Development. In this regard, we aim at testing a methodology based on a semi-automatic approach able to extract the spatial extent of urban areas, referred to as \u201curban footprint\u201d, from satellite data. In particular, we exploited Sentinel-1 radar imagery through multitemporal analysis of interferometric coherence as well as supervised and non-supervised classi\ufb01cation algorithms. Lastly, we compared the results with the land cover map of the Veneto Region for accuracy assessments. Once properly processed and classi\ufb01ed, the radar images resulted in high accuracy values, with an overall accuracy ranging between 85% and 90% and percentages of urban footprint di\ufb00ering by less than 1%\u20132% with respect to the values extracted from the reference land cover map. These results provide not only a reliable and useful support for strategic urban planning and monitoring, but also potentially identify a solid organizational data\ufb02ow process to prepare geographic indicators that will help answering the needs of the 2030 Agenda (in particular the goal 11 \u201cSustainable Cities and Communities\u201d)
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