165 research outputs found

    Techno-economics Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Palm, Jatropha Curcas and Calophyllum Inophyllum as Biofuel

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    Transportation sector has a dominant role in global fuel consumption andgreenhouse gas emissions consequently. Biodiesel is a renewable energy that has great potential to serve as an alternative fuel to fossil diesel in diesel engine. Besides the technical barriers, there are several nontechnical limiting factors, which impede the development of biodiesel. Therefore, this study is focused on biodiesel production and techno-economic comparison among palm, jatropha curcas and calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel as transportation fuel. Moreover, the present study attempts to find out the impact of biodiesel implementation towards the energy scenario, environmental and economy. The largest economic factor for biodiesel production is feedstock cost. Furthermore, replacing 5% of diesel fuel with biodiesel fuel in road transport can reduce theCO2 emission up to 1200 ktons in year 2031. When the subsidy policy and tax exemption are implemented, biodiesel fuel is more competitive than fossil diesel at the current production costs. Therefore, this study serves as a guideline for further investigation on biodiesel production and other limitation factors before the wider utilization of biodiesel can be implemented

    COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION ON EMISSIONS OF HYDROGEN FUELED COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE WITH VARIABLE COMBUSTION TEMPERATURE

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    ABSTRACT In this paper, computational simulation on the effect of combustion temperature on emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fuelled compression ignition engine was performed. Combustion process was modeled based on Equilibrium Constant Method (ECM) and programmed using MATLAB program in order to calculate mole fractions of 18 combustion products when hydrogendiesel fuels blends is burnt at variable combustion temperatures. It is observed that throughout all equivalence ratios, higher temperature increases H 2 , CO , HCN, atoms C, O and H, NO, OH, NO 2 and O 3 emissions and decreases CO 2 , H 2 O, NH3 and CH 4 , N 2 , O 2 and HNO 3 emissions. The highest H 2 O emission occurs during stoichiometric combustion and decrease in combustion temperature causes insignificant changes in atom N emission

    Study on the tribological characteristics of plant oil-based bio-lubricant with automotive liner-piston ring materials

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    The development of bio-lubricant is an immerging area of research considering the rapid depletion of petroleum reserve and environmental concern. This study aims to develop non-edible jatropha oil-based bio-lubricant and investigate the tribological properties considering commonly used piston ring-cylinder liner materials of stainless steel and cast iron due to their interaction under lubricated conditions in an internal combustion engine. The bio-lubricant was prepared by blending different percentages of vegetable oil with commercial lubricants. The tribological test was carried out using a Reo-Bicerihigh-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) for the duration of 6 ​h under standard operating conditions. Different properties of bio-lubricants were measured before and after the HFRR test using various analytical instruments. The morphology of the worn material surfaces was examined via Hitachi S-4700 FE-SEM cold field emission high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that addition of vegetable oil lubricant up to 7.5% concentration can be compared with commercial lubricant in case of wear rate and coefficient of wear as weight loss reduced significantly. Minimum change in viscosity was observed at the addition of 7.5% bio-lubricant. Surface morphology analysis confirmed less damage of metal surface when tribological analysis were performed at mixed lubricated condition. © 2022 The Author

    Ennaltaehkäisevän mielenterveys- ja päihdetyön saavutettavuus nuorille Salossa

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    Mielenterveyden käsite on monisäikeinen, eikä sitä tulisi asettaa sairauden vastakohdaksi. Terveen mielen kuuluukin oireilla kuormittavissa tilanteissa. Tärkeää on kuitenkin tunnistaa oireilu ja sen syyt, jotta tilanteeseen voidaan vaikuttaa. Vahvan koherenssin tunteen tiedetään suojaavan sairastumiselta erittäin vaikeissakin olosuhteissa. Salossa nuorilla on kohonnut riski sairastua mielenterveydenhäiriöihin. Riski on nähtävissä nuorten työkyvyttömyyseläkkeiden määrässä, sekä korkeana nuorisotyöttömyytenä. Salossa on tarjolla lakisääteiset mielenterveyspalvelut ja niiden lisäksi Salon kaupunki tukee ennaltaehkäisevää työtä muun muassa järjestöjen kautta. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää tunnistaako nuoret mielenterveyden erilaisia tapoja oireilla. Lakisääteiset palvelut ovat kaikkien käytettävissä, mutta apua ei välttämättä osata hakea jos oireita ei tunnisteta. Lisäksi tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää käyttävätkö nuoret jo olevia palveluita, sekä olisiko heillä kiinnostusta uusille erilaisille palveluille. Vastauksia kyselyyn tuli 315 ajalla 18.5.-29.5.2015. Mielenterveyden oireilua tunnistettiin vaihtelevasti. Suoranaista kiinnostusta uusille palveluille oli vain pienellä osalla, mutta vastausten perusteella useampi saattaisi olla kiinnostunut, saatuaan enemmän tietoa toiminnan sisällöstä. Tulosten perusteella on aiheellista suositella uudenlaisten palveluiden käyttöönottoa, pelkästään jo kustannussyistä. Jos yksikin nuori välttyy vakavimmilta oireiluilta tai jopa sairastumiselta, on palvelu maksanut itsensä takaisin moninkertaisesti.The concept of mental health is multidimensional and should not be set as an opposite of illness. A healthy mind is supposed to show symptoms in demanding situations. In these situations it is important to recognize symptoms and their cause so that they can be reacted. Strong sense of coherence is known to protect from illness even in the most demanding situations. The youth have an increased risk of facing disturbances of the mind in Salo. The risk can be seen in the number of the youth disability pensions and the high youth unemployment rate. Salo provides statutory mental health care and additionally the city provides proactive work through associations. The purpose of this research is to look into the capability of the youth to recognize different ways of how mental health shows symptoms. Statutory public services are available for everyone, but seeking for the might be hard if the symptoms are not recognized. An additional purpose of the research is to figure out if the young people use the already existing services and are interested of new and different kind of services. The amount of answers in the survey was 315 and it took place between 18.5.2015 and 29.5.2015. Mental disorder symptoms were recognized variedly. Only a small number of respondents showed direct interest for new services, but based on the answers more people might show interest after receiving more information of the contents of the services. Based on the results it is justified to recommend an implementation of new kind of services even on the costs saving basis alone. If even one young person can manage to avoid more severe symptoms or illness, the service has paid itself back multiply

    Analysis of Blended Fuel Properties and Cycle-To-Cycle Variation In A Diesel Engine With A Diethyl Ether Additive

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    In this study, the effect of adding small portions of a diethyl ether additive to biodiesel–diesel blended fuel (B30) was investigated. This study includes an evaluation of the fuel properties and a combustion analysis, specifically, an analysis of the cyclic variations in diesel engines. The amount of additive used with B30 is 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume). The experimental engine test was conducted at 2500 rpm which produce maximum torque, and the in-cylinder pressure data were collected over 200 consecutive engine cycles for each test. The indicated mean effective pressure time series is analyzed using the coefficient of variation and the wavelet analysis method. The test results for the properties show a slight improvement in density and acid value with a significant decrease in the viscosity, pour point and cloud point of the blended fuel with an 8% additive ratio by 26.5%, 4 °C and 3 °C, respectively, compared with blended fuel without additive. However, the heating value is reduced by approximately 4% with increasing the additive ratio to 8%. From the wavelet power spectrum, it is observed that the intermediate and long-term periodicities appear in diesel fuel, while the short-period oscillations become intermittently visible in pure blended fuel. The coefficient of variation for B30 was the lowest and increased as the additive ratios increased, which agrees with the wavelet analysis results. Furthermore, the spectral power increased with an increase in the additive ratio, indicating that the additive has a noticeable effect on increasing the cycle-to-cycle variations

    Sustainable eSiC reinforced composite materials – synthetization and characterization

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    Sustainable and light weight composite materials have received extensive attention in the application of aerospace, automotive, agriculture and marine. Synthetic SiC is expensive and harmful to the human being. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop eSiC reinforced aluminium matrix sustainable composite material using waste rice husk with the process route of powder metallurgy. Simple and cost-effective pyrolysis process was used for the extraction of low�density eSiC from agricultural waste rice husk which contains a significant amount of silica. This silica was then converted in to environmentally friendly SiC (known as eSiC) material and used as a reinforcing agent to the lightweight composite development. From the results, these materials showed good metallurgical bonding with better mechanical properties. It is also observed that compared to metallic cast iron, this new composite material is better in terms of cost, material usage, eco-friendly (no harm to the environment and people), hence, sustainable. This concept demonstrates that this new sustainable and lightweight material can be used for aerospace, automotive and other structural applications, especially for disk brake, liner, and shaft. This eSiC can also be used as a coating material for composite coating development

    Investigation of the Emission Characteristics of Iso-Butanol Additives on Methanol-Gasoline Blends using Spark Ignition Engine / Hazim Sharudin ...[et al.]

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    Lower emissions of spark ignition engine can be achieved by using alcohol fuels such as methanol as it is more environmental advantage over fossil fuel. The methanol fuels can be further improved by added with iso-butanol as it have higher energy content and able to displace more gasoline fuel. Nevertheless, the research on the addition of lower ratio iso-butanol in methanol-gasoline blends specifically on exhaust emission is still not investigated thoroughly. Therefore, this study will focus on investigating the effect of iso-butanol additive on methanol-gasoline blends on the emission characteristics of spark ignition engine. The lower percentage (5%) of methanol-gasoline fuels was added with lower ratio of iso-butanol (5-15%) with 5% of volume increment. The experimental test were carried out on a 1.6-litre four-cylinder spark ignition engine at a fixed speed of 4000 rpm with increasing engine load form 10 Nm until 100 Nm. The results showed that the iso-butanol additive in methanol-gasoline blends was efficient to reduce the carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) formation compared to base fuel. Among all tested fuels, M5B15 (Iso-butanol 15% + Methanol 5% + Gasoline 80%) blend gave lower CO and HC emissions by 12.45% and 16.18% at 100 Nm. Meanwhile, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were higher for all methanol-gasoline blends with iso-butanol additives compared with that base gasoline. M5B15 blends gives higher emissions of NOx and CO2 by 11.45% and 11.74% at 100 Nm. This study summarized that iso-butanol additives can be applied in low percentage methanol-gasoline blends without any modification on the current existing engine, therefore reducing any serious environment impact

    Tribological improvement using ionic liquids as additives in synthetic and bio-based lubricants for steel-steel contacts

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    This study investigates the performance of three ionic liquids (ILs), trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium decanoate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, as lubricant additives in synthetic oil polyalphaolefin (PAO8) and bio-based oil trimethylolpropane trioleate (TMPTO). The ILs were added at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt% concentrations and evaluated in terms of their miscibility with base oils as well as friction- and wear-reducing abilities. Four-ball and high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) tribotesters were employed to evaluate the tribological performance under a boundary lubrication regime. Worn steel surfaces were characterized using optical microscopy, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results suggested that the addition of trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium decanoate improved the tribological performance of both PAO8 and TMPTO at an optimum concentration of 1 wt%. They showed good friction reduction, lower overall surface wear, and improved surface finishing. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate managed to improve the tribological performance of both base oils only at 0.5 wt%. A further increase in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate concentration caused detrimental effects on the steel surface due to the formation of halogenic compounds

    An Overview of Biodiesel Production via Calcium Oxide Based Catalysts: Current State and Perspective

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    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, liquid fuel that can be used in existing diesel engines without modification as pure or blend. Transesterification (the primary process for biodiesel generation) via heterogeneous catalysis using low-cost waste feedstocks for catalyst synthesis improves the economics of biodiesel production. Heterogeneous catalysts are preferred for the industrial generation of biodiesel due to their robustness and low costs due to the easy separation and relatively higher reusability. Calcium oxides found in abundance in nature, e.g., in seashells and eggshells, are promising candidates for the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts. However, process improvements are required to design productive calcium oxide-based catalysts at an industrial scale. The current work presents an overview of the biodiesel production advancements using calcium oxide-based catalysts (e.g., pure, supported, and mixed with metal oxides). The review discusses different factors involved in the synthesis of calcium oxide-based catalysts, and the effect of reaction parameters on the biodiesel yield of calcium oxide-based catalysis are studied. Further, the common reactor designs used for the heterogeneous catalysis using calcium oxide-based catalysts are explained. Moreover, the catalytic activity mechanism, challenges and prospects of the application of calcium oxide-based catalysts in biodiesel generation are discussed. The study of calcium oxide-based catalyst should continue to be evaluated for the potential of their application in the commercial sector as they remain the pivotal goal of these studies

    Tribological characteristics comparison of formulated palm trimethylolpropane ester and polyalphaolefin for cam/tappet interface of direct acting valve train system

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    Purpose There is a continuous drive in automotive sector to shift from conventional lubricants to environmental friendly ones without adversely affecting critical tribological performance parameters. Because of their favorable tribological properties, chemically modified vegetable oils such as palm trimethylolpropane ester (TMP) are one of the potential candidates for the said role. To prove the suitability of TMP for applications involving boundary-lubrication regime such as cam/tappet interface of direct acting valve train system, a logical step forward is to investigate their compatibility with conventional lubricant additives. Design/methodology/approach In this study, extreme pressure and tribological characteristics of TMP, formulated with glycerol mono-oleate (GMO), molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), has been investigated using four-ball wear tester and valve train test rig. For comparison, additive-free and formulated versions of polyalphaolefin (PAO) were used as reference. Moreover, various surface characterization techniques were deployed to investigate mechanisms responsible for a particular tribological behavior. Findings In additive-free form, TMP demonstrated better extreme pressure characteristics compared to PAO and lubricant additives which are actually optimized for conventional base-oils such as PAO, are also proved to be compatible with TMP to some extent, especially ZDDP. During cylinder head tests, additive-free TMP proved to be more effective compared to PAO in reducing friction of cam/tappet interface, but opposite behavior was seen when formulated lubricants were used. Therefore, there is a need to synthesize specialized friction modifiers, anti-wear and extreme pressure additives for TMP before using it as engine lubricant base-oil. Originality/value In this study, additive-free and formulated versions of bio-lubricant are tested for cam/tappet interface of direct acting valve train system of commercial passenger car diesel engine for the very test time. Another important aspect of this research was comparison of important tribological performance parameters (friction torque, wear, rotational speed of tappet) of TMP-based lubricants with conventional lubricant base oil, that is, PAO and its formulated version
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