4,159 research outputs found

    The nature of the short wavelength excitations in vitreous silica: X-Rays Brillouin scattering study

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    The dynamical structure factor (S(Q,E)) of vitreous silica has been measured by Inelastic X-ray Scattering varying the exchanged wavevector (Q) at fixed exchanged energy (E) - an experimental procedure that, contrary to the usual one at constant Q, provides spectra with much better identified inelastic features. This allows the first direct evidence of Brillouin peaks in the S(Q,E) of SiO_2 at energies above the Boson Peak (BP) energy, a finding that excludes the possibility that the BP marks the transition from propagating to localised dynamics in glasses.Comment: 4 pages, 3 Postscript figures. To appear in Physical Review Letter

    Non-dynamic origin of the acoustic attenuation at high frequency in glasses

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    The sound attenuation in the THz region is studied down to T=16 K in glassy glycerol by inelastic x-ray scattering. At striking variance with the decrease found below 100 K in the GHz data, the attenuation in the THz range does not show any T dependence. This result i) indicates the presence of two different attenuation mechanisms, active respectively in the high and low frequency limits; ii) demonstrates the non-dynamic origin of the attenuation of THz sound waves, and confirms a similar conclusion obtained in SiO2 glass by molecular dynamics; and iii) supports the low frequency attenuation mechanism proposed by Fabian and Allen (Phys.Rev.Lett. 82, 1478 (1999)).Comment: 3 pages, 5 Figures, To be published in PR

    Observation of Umklapp processes in non-crystalline materials

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    Umklapp processes are known to exist in cristalline materials, where they control important properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity and electrical conductivity. In this work we report the provocative observation of Umklapp processes in a non-periodical system, namely liquid Lithium. The lack of a well defined periodicity seems then not to prevent the existence of these scattering processes mechanisms provided that the local order of the systems i.e. the maxima of the static structure factor supply the equivalent of a reciprocal lattice vector in the case of cristalline materials.Comment: 13 pages P

    Frustration and sound attenuation in structural glasses

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    Three classes of harmonic disorder systems (Lennard-Jones like glasses, percolators above threshold, and spring disordered lattices) have been numerically investigated in order to clarify the effect of different types of disorder on the mechanism of high frequency sound attenuation. We introduce the concept of frustration in structural glasses as a measure of the internal stress, and find a strong correlation between the degree of frustration and the exponent alpha that characterizes the momentum dependence of the sound attenuation Gamma(Q)Gamma(Q)≃\simeqQαQ^\alpha. In particular, alpha decreases from about d+1 in low-frustration systems (where d is the spectral dimension), to about 2 for high frustration systems like the realistic glasses examined.Comment: Revtex, 4 pages including 4 figure

    Acoustic Nature of the Boson Peak in Vitreous Silica

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    New temperature dependent inelastic x-ray (IXS) and Raman (RS) scattering data are compared to each other and with existing inelastic neutron scattering data in vitreous silica (v-SiO_2), in the 300 - 1775 K region. The IXS data show collective propagating excitations up to Q=3.5 nm^-1. The temperature behaviour of the excitations at Q=1.6 nm^-1 matches that of the boson peak found in INS and RS. This supports the acoustic origin of the excess of vibrational states giving rise to the boson peak in this glass.Comment: 10 pages and 4 figure

    Vibrational spectrum of topologically disordered systems

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    The topological nature of the disorder of glasses and supercooled liquids strongly affects their high-frequency dynamics. In order to understand its main features, we analytically studied a simple topologically disordered model, where the particles oscillate around randomly distributed centers, interacting through a generic pair potential. We present results of a resummation of the perturbative expansion in the inverse particle density for the dynamic structure factor and density of states. This gives accurate results for the range of densities found in real systems.Comment: Completely rewritten version, accepted in Physical Review Letter

    The crossover from propagating to strongly scattered acoustic modes of glasses observed in densified silica

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    Spectroscopic results on low frequency excitations of densified silica are presented and related to characteristic thermal properties of glasses. The end of the longitudinal acoustic branch is marked by a rapid increase of the Brillouin linewidth with the scattering vector. This rapid growth saturates at a crossover frequency Omega_co which nearly coincides with the center of the boson peak. The latter is clearly due to additional optic-like excitations related to nearly rigid SiO_4 librations as indicated by hyper-Raman scattering. Whether the onset of strong scattering is best described by hybridization of acoustic modes with these librations, by their elastic scattering (Rayleigh scattering) on the local excitations, or by soft potentials remains to be settled.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures, to be published in a special issue of J. Phys. Condens. Matte

    The Raman coupling function in amorphous silica and the nature of the long wavelength excitations in disordered systems

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    New Raman and incoherent neutron scattering data at various temperatures and molecular dynamic simulations in amorphous silica, are compared to obtain the Raman coupling coefficient C(ω)C(\omega) and, in particular, its low frequency limit. This study indicates that in the ω→0\omega \to 0 limit C(ω)C(\omega) extrapolates to a non vanishing value, giving important indications on the characteristics of the vibrational modes in disordered materials; in particular our results indicate that even in the limit of very long wavelength the local disorder implies non-regular local atomic displacements.Comment: Revtex, 4 ps figure

    Elastic constant dishomogeneity and Q2Q^2 dependence of the broadening of the dynamical structure factor in disordered systems

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    We propose an explanation for the quadratic dependence on the momentum QQ, of the broadening of the acoustic excitation peak recently found in the study of the dynamic structure factor of many real and simulated glasses. We ascribe the observed Q2Q^2 law to the spatial fluctuations of the local wavelength of the collective vibrational modes, in turn produced by the dishomegeneity of the inter-particle elastic constants. This explanation is analitically shown to hold for 1-dimensional disordered chains and satisfatorily numerically tested in both 1 and 3 dimensions.Comment: 4 pages, RevTeX, 5 postscript figure

    The evolution of vibrational excitations in glassy systems

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    The equations of the mode-coupling theory (MCT) for ideal liquid-glass transitions are used for a discussion of the evolution of the density-fluctuation spectra of glass-forming systems for frequencies within the dynamical window between the band of high-frequency motion and the band of low-frequency-structural-relaxation processes. It is shown that the strong interaction between density fluctuations with microscopic wave length and the arrested glass structure causes an anomalous-oscillation peak, which exhibits the properties of the so-called boson peak. It produces an elastic modulus which governs the hybridization of density fluctuations of mesoscopic wave length with the boson-peak oscillations. This leads to the existence of high-frequency sound with properties as found by X-ray-scattering spectroscopy of glasses and glassy liquids. The results of the theory are demonstrated for a model of the hard-sphere system. It is also derived that certain schematic MCT models, whose spectra for the stiff-glass states can be expressed by elementary formulas, provide reasonable approximations for the solutions of the general MCT equations.Comment: 50 pages, 17 postscript files including 18 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev.