383 research outputs found

    Postharvest UV-B exposure drives changes in primary metabolism, phenolic concentration, and volatilome profile in berries of different grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can alter grape metabolism during berry development, but little is known on the effect of postharvest UV-B exposure. In this study, we evaluated the effect of postharvest UV-B exposure on berry primary and secondary metabolites in four grapevine varieties (Aleatico, Moscato bianco, Sangiovese, and Vermentino) in order to evaluate the possibility to increase the grape quality and its nutraceutical properties. RESULTS The treatment did not significantly affect the berry primary metabolism in terms of organic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids profile, regardless of the variety. UV-B exposure reduced the total anthocyanin content, particularly the tri-substituted and di-substituted forms in Aleatico and Sangiovese, respectively. An overall negative effect of UV-B irradiation on the flavonols profile of Aleatico, Moscato bianco, and Vermentino berries was found, whereas it enhanced the quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol concentration in Sangiovese. The free fraction of berry volatile organic compounds increased in UV-B-treated Aleatico and Moscato bianco berries, especially C-13-norisoprenoids and volatile phenols, as well as key monoterpenes, such as the linalool derivatives. However, higher concentrations of glycosylated monoterpenes and C-13-norisoprenoids were measured in Sangiovese and Vermentino berries treated with UV-B. CONCLUSION This study provides new insights on the effect of postharvest UV-B radiation on berry secondary metabolism, highlighting a different modulation between varieties and suggesting the potential use of this technique to increase some nutraceutical and quality characteristics of grape berry

    Moderate Salinity Stress Affects Expression of Main Sugar Metabolism and Transport Genes and Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Ripe Fig Fruits (Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato)

    No full text
    Fig trees (Ficus carica L.) are commonly grown in the Mediterranean area, where salinity is an increasing problem in coastal areas. Young, fruiting plants of cv. Dottato were subjected to moderate salt stress (100 mM NaCl added to irrigation water) for 48 days before fruit sampling. To clarify the effect of salinity stress, we investigated changes in the transcription of the main sugar metabolism-related genes involved in the synthesis, accumulation and transport of soluble carbohydrates in ripe fruits by quantitative real-time PCR as well as the content of soluble sugars by quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A general increase in the transcript levels of genes involved in the transport of soluble carbohydrates was observed. Alkaline-neutral and Acid Invertases transcripts, related to the synthesis of glucose and fructose, were up-regulated in ripe fruits of NaCl-stressed plants without a change in the content of D-glucose and D-fructose. The increases in sucrose and D-sorbitol contents were likely the result of the up-regulation of the transcription of Sucrose-Synthase- and Sorbitol-Dehydrogenase-encoding genes

    Differential expression gene analysis on sugar pathway in ripe Ficus carica L. cv Dottato fruits under salinity stress

    No full text
    Fig fruit (Ficus carica L., Moraceae) is commonly consumed in its fresh or dried form. The taste of it is largely influenced by various compounds within it, including organic acids and sugars. To date, there are no data evaluating sugar metabolism genes in mature fruits of plants cultivated under salinity stress. The data available is related to the analysis of the enzymatic activities of the most important enzymes and the amounts of sugars present in the fruit, whether ripening or mature. In fruits, sorbitol and sucrose are the two main forms of photosynthetic and translocated carbon, and they may have different functions depending on the utilisation organ and its developmental stage. The role and interaction of sorbitol and sucrose metabolism was studied on ripe fruits of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato exposed to 100 mM sodium chloride for 48 days. In this study, the variation in expression of different genes involved in the metabolism of sugars was investigated by means of relative Real-Time PCR. The main genes involved in the conversion of sucrose and sorbitol into fructose, glucose and UDP-glucose, and later to glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-biphosphate were analysed along with sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol and hexose transporters. The analysis showed an increasing expression level of the metabolism of sorbitol and sucrose to glucose, UDP-glucose and fructose. The expression level of hexokinase was unchanged and phosphofructokinase was up-regulated. The expression levels of sucrose transporters and sorbitol transporters were increased, and hexose and mannitol transporters were stable. It is possible that sugars enter the fruit cells, and in those cells, they are metabolised to simple sugars. However, this can only be determined following sugar concentration analysis; a whole series of post-transcriptional adjustments may be involved

    LA FERITA FAMILIARE DEL DIVORZIO

    No full text
    Il volume vuole fornire un quadro articolato delle problematiche degli adulti e dei figli nel ciclo vitale della separazione e del divorzio. In particolare, esso permetterĂ  al lettore di usare porte d'entrata differenziate in contesti terapeutici e istituzionali per la prevenzione e la cura dei danni prodotti dal conflitto genitoriale sullo sviluppo dei bambini e degli adolescenti. Negli ultimi quarant'anni molti professionisti si sono impegnati nella definizione di modelli d'intervento efficaci per la gestione dei conflitti fra i genitori (ad esempio la mediazione familiare). PiĂč raramente, tuttavia, sono state trasmesse le conoscenze acquisite nell'esperienza clinica in contesti psicoterapeutici: si tratta spesso del lavoro necessario agli adulti e ai figli per adattarsi ai cambiamenti che la famiglia Ăš costretta ad affrontare e che pongono sfide complesse, anche quando il conflitto Ăš ormai apparentemente governato. Spesso, infatti, la ferita del divorzio non produce soltanto il sintomo di un rigido conflitto, ma forme diverse di sofferenza che impediscono di trovare le risorse per garantire la continuitĂ  degli affetti e la sicurezza emotiva: difficoltĂ  di transizione a una nuova vita - per la coppia, i figli e le famiglie di origine - che portano i bambini e gli adolescenti a manifestare sintomi psicopatologici e al divorzio bloccato della coppia; l'entrata nel tunnel dell'alta conflittualitĂ  e l'inasprirsi delle controversie giudiziali, la perdita della relazione con il padre, la ripetizione della difficoltĂ  a costruire una relazione di coppia per i figli adulti dei divorzi ostili. Il libro dedica inoltre uno spazio all'interdisciplinarietĂ  necessaria nella cornice del diritto di famiglia: l'ascolto dei figli in tribunale condotto dal giudice insieme allo psicologo, la mediazione familiare e le procedure in alternative dispute resolution

    FROM THE YOUNG CHILD CLINICAL DISORDER (DC: 0-5TM , AXIS I) TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL CAREGIVING (DC: 0-5TM , AXIS II, PART B) IN THE CONTEXT OF FAMILY THERAPY MULTIGENERATIONAL APPROACH

    No full text
    The DC: 0-5TM influences the clinicians to connect the disorder in the child to the specific disorder of a relationship and to the problems in the caregiving environment (AXIS II, Part B). Family Psychotherapy (Andolfi, 2010) shares with Developmental Psychopathology (Davies, Cicchetti, 2004) many assumptions and the possibility of a coherent evaluation and psychotherapy process. The aim of the workshop is to propose an example case study of a 4-year-old girl with an aggressive - hostile relationship with her parents. Her behaviour is linked to an obsessive-compulsive clinical disorder. The case study shows a diagnostic process that considers different levels of observation: child’s characteristics, characteristics of parenting and co-parenting and multi-generation family environment.vA multifactorial evaluation process shows the balance between risk and protective factors considering the child, the parenting and co-parenting and the family stories. After having completed these proceedings, a therapeutic process is presented. By working in three distinct phases, it is possible to interact with parents by supporting them in the strategies of managing the symptomatology of their child and then gradually discover multigenerational family stories that result coherent, both in terms of meaning and function, with the disorder presented through the request for therapeutic aid. The case demonstrates the possibility of partial remission of clinical disorder through a first phase of structural work focused on Caregiving Role Allocation (Minuchin, 1974; DC:0-5TM, 2016). A complete remission of the disorder has been found after the multigenerational clinical work, involving parents and grandmother. DC:0-5TM helps clinicians to attend the diagnostic task keeping in mind the interaction between risk and protective factors in a broad context of family relationships (Cummings, Davies, Campbell, 2000). Mutligenerational family therapy can be considered coherent with this diagnostic method

    Detection of a stable nitroxide during chemical depolymerization of heparin

    No full text
    The use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) has become common, since compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH), they have a much longer plasma half-life and lower incidence of side effects. LMWHs are derived from the depolymerization of UFH, obtained either chemically, physically or enzymatically. We employed electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to study the depolymerization of UFH by copper in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A stable nitroxide radical was detected. This could be generated by the hydroxyl radical attack either to the N-SO3- group or to free amino groups present in the UFH preparation

    Moderate Salinity Stress Affects Expression of Main Sugar Metabolism and Transport Genes and Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Ripe Fig Fruits (Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato)

    No full text
    Fig trees (Ficus carica L.) are commonly grown in the Mediterranean area, where salinity is an increasing problem in coastal areas. Young, fruiting plants of cv. Dottato were subjected to moderate salt stress (100 mM NaCl added to irrigation water) for 48 days before fruit sampling. To clarify the effect of salinity stress, we investigated changes in the transcription of the main sugar metabolism‐related genes involved in the synthesis, accumulation and transport of soluble carbohydrates in ripe fruits by quantitative real‐time PCR as well as the content of soluble sugars by quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A general increase in the transcript levels of genes involved in the transport of soluble carbohydrates was observed. Alkaline‐neutral and Acid Invertases transcripts, related to the synthesis of glucose and fructose, were up‐regulated in ripe fruits of NaCl‐stressed plants without a change in the content of D‐glucose and D‐fructose. The increases in sucrose and D‐sorbitol contents were likely the result of the up‐regulation of the transcription of Sucrose‐Synthase‐ and Sorbitol‐Dehydrogenase‐encoding genes

    Effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei supplementation on the faecal metabolome in children with coeliac disease autoimmunity : a randomised, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial

    No full text
    Introduction: Coeliac disease is a lifelong immune-mediated enteropathy manifested as gluten intolerance in individuals carrying specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Other factors than genetics and gluten intake, however, may play a role in triggering the disease. The gut internal environment is thought to be one of these potential contributing factors, and it can be influenced throughout life. Methods: We examine the impact of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum HEAL9 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei 8700:2 supplementation on the faecal metabolome in genetically predisposed children having tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies, i.e., coeliac disease autoimmunity. Probiotic strains were selected based on their beneficial properties, including mucosal permeability and immune modulation effects. The intervention group (n = 40) and control group (n = 38) took the probiotics or placebo daily for 6 months in a double-blinded randomised trial. Faecal samples were collected at baseline and after 3 and 6 months and analysed using the 1H NMR for metabolome. The incorporation of 16S rRNA sequencing as a supportive dataset complemented the analysis of the metabolome data. Results: During the 6 months of intervention, the stool concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate increased in the intervention group as compared to controls, whereas concentrations of threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, aspartate, and fumarate decreased. Additionally, a noteworthy effect on the glycine, serine, and threonine metabolic pathway has been observed. Conclusion: The findings suggest a modest yet significant impact of the probiotics on the faecal metabolome, primarily influencing proteolytic processes in the gut. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03176095

    Polyketide Derivatives in the Resistance of Gerbera hybrida to Powdery Mildew

    No full text
    Powdery mildew is a common disease affecting the commercial production of gerbera flowers (Gerbera hybrida, Asteraceae). Some varieties show a certain degree of resistance to it. Our objective was to identify biomarkers of resistance to powdery mildew using an 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics approach in a complex, fully factorial experiment to suggest a target for selection and breeding. Resistant varieties were found to differ from those that were susceptible in the metabolites of the polyketide pathway, such as gerberin, parasorboside, and gerberinside. A new compound probably involved in resistance, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid 3-O-ÎČ-D-glucoside, was described for the first time. A decision tree model was built to distinguish resistant varieties, with an accuracy of 57.7%, sensitivity of 72%, and specificity of 44.44% in an independent test. Our results suggest the mechanism of resistance to powdery mildew in gerbera and provide a potential tool for resistance screening in breeding programs
    • 

    corecore