135 research outputs found

    Influence of nanosecond laser surface patterning on dental 3Y-TZP: Effects on the topography, hydrothermal degradation and cell response

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    Objectives Laser surface micropatterning of dental-grade zirconia (3Y-TZP) was explored with the objective of providing defined linear patterns capable of guiding bone-cell response. Methods A nanosecond (ns-) laser was employed to fabricate microgrooves on the surface of 3Y-TZP discs, yielding three different groove periodicities (i.e., 30, 50 and 100 ”m). The resulting topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were employed to assess the hydrothermal degradation resistance of the modified topographies. Preliminary biological studies were conducted to evaluate adhesion (6 h) of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to the patterns in terms of cell number and morphology. Finally, Staphylococcus aureus adhesion (4 h) to the microgrooves was investigated. Results The surface analysis showed grooves of approximately 1.8 ”m height that exhibited surface damage in the form of pile-up at the edge of the microgrooves, microcracks and cavities. Accelerated aging tests revealed a slight decrease of the hydrothermal degradation resistance after laser patterning, and the Raman mapping showed the presence of monoclinic phase heterogeneously distributed along the patterned surfaces. An increase of the hMSC area was identified on all the microgrooved surfaces, although only the 50 ”m periodicity, which is closer to the cell size, significantly favored cell elongation and alignment along the grooves. A decrease in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion was observed on the investigated micropatterns. Significance The study suggests that linear microgrooves of 50 ”m periodicity may help in promoting hMSC adhesion and alignment, while reducing bacterial cell attachment.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Titanium Boston keratoprosthesis with corneal cell adhesive and bactericidal dual coating

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    The Boston keratoprosthesis (BKPro) is a medical device used to restore vision in complicated cases of corneal blindness. This device is composed by a front plate of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and a backplate usually made of titanium (Ti). Ti is an excellent biomaterial with numerous applications, although there are not many studies that address its interaction with ocular cells. In this regard, despite the good retention rates of the BKPro, two main complications compromise patients' vision and the viability of the prosthesis: imperfect adhesion of the corneal tissue to the upside of the backplate and infections. Thus, in this work, two topographies (smooth and rough) were generated on Ti samples and tested with or without functionalization with a dual peptide platform. This molecule consists of a branched structure that links two peptide moieties to address the main complications associated with BKPro: the well-known RGD peptide in its cyclic version (cRGD) as cell pro-adherent motif and the first 11 residues of lactoferrin (LF1–11) as antibacterial motif. Samples were physicochemically characterized, and their biological response was evaluated in vitro with human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) and against the gram-negative bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The physicochemical characterization allowed to verify the functionalization in a qualitative and quantitative manner. A higher amount of peptide was anchored to the rough surfaces. The studies performed using HCKs showed increased long-term proliferation on the functionalized samples. Gene expression was affected by topography and peptide functionalization. Roughness promoted a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) overexpression, and the coating notably increased the expression of extracellular matrix components (ECM). Such changes may favour the development of unwanted fibrosis, and thus, corneal haze. In contrast, the combination of the coating with a rough topography decreased the expression of a-SMA and ECM components, which would be desirable for the long-term success of the prosthesis. Regarding the antibacterial activity, the functionalized smooth and rough surfaces promoted the death of bacteria, as well as a perturbation in their wall definition and cellular morphology. Bacterial killing values were 58 % for smooth functionalised and 68 % for rough functionalised samples. In summary, this study suggests that the use of the dual peptide platform with cRGD and LF1-11 could be a good strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo performance of the rough topography used in the commercial BKPro.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Comparison of the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide on titanium surface

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    Titanium implantation success may be compromised by Staphylococcus aureus surface colonization and posterior infection. To avoid this issue, different strategies have been investigated to promote an antibacterial character to titanium. In this work, two antibacterial agents (silver nanoparticles and a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide) were used to coat titanium surfaces. The modulation of the nanoparticle (˜32.1 ± 9.4 nm) density on titanium could be optimized, and a sequential functionalization with both agents was achieved through a two-step functionalization method by means of surface silanization. The antibacterial character of the coating agents was assessed individually as well as combined. The results have shown that a reduction in bacteria after 4 h of incubation can be achieved on all the coated surfaces. After 24 h of incubation, however, the individual antimicrobial peptide coating was more effective than the silver nanoparticles or their combination against Staphylococcus aureus. All tested coatings were non-cytotoxic for eukaryotic cells.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Protease-degradable hydrogels with multifunctional biomimetic peptides for bone tissue engineering

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    Mimicking bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is paramount to develop novel biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. In this regard, the combination of integrin-binding ligands together with osteogenic peptides represents a powerful approach to recapitulate the healing microenvironment of bone. In the present work, we designed polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels functionalized with cell instructive multifunctional biomimetic peptides (either with cyclic RGD-DWIVA or cyclic RGD-cyclic DWIVA) and cross-linked with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-degradable sequences to enable dynamic enzymatic biodegradation and cell spreading and differentiation. The analysis of the intrinsic properties of the hydrogel revealed relevant mechanical properties, porosity, swelling and degradability to engineer hydrogels for bone tissue engineering. Moreover, the engineered hydrogels were able to promote human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) spreading and significantly improve their osteogenic differentiation. Thus, these novel hydrogels could be a promising candidate for applications in bone tissue engineering, such as acellular systems to be implanted and regenerate bone or in stem cells therapy

    Effectiveness of Direct Laser Interference Patterning and Peptide Immobilization on Endothelial Cell Migration for Cardio-Vascular Applications: An In Vitro Study

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    Endothelial coverage of an exposed cardiovascular stent surface leads to the occurrence of restenosis and late-stent thrombosis several months after implantation. To overcome this difficulty, modification of stent surfaces with topographical or biochemical features may be performed to increase endothelial cells’ (ECs) adhesion and/or migration. This work combines both strategies on cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy and studies the potential synergistic effect of linear patterned surfaces that are obtained by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP), coupled with the use of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) peptides. An extensive characterization of the modified surfaces was performed by using AFM, XPS, surface charge, electrochemical analysis and fluorescent methods. The biological response was studied in terms of EC adhesion, migration and proliferation assays. CoCr surfaces were successfully patterned with a periodicity of 10 ”m and two different depths, D (≈79 and 762 nm). RGD and YIGSR were immobilized on the surfaces by CPTES silanization. Early EC adhesion was increased on the peptide-functionalized surfaces, especially for YIGSR compared to RGD. High-depth patterns generated 80% of ECs’ alignment within the topographical lines and enhanced EC migration. It is noteworthy that the combined use of the two strategies synergistically accelerated the ECs’ migration and proliferation, proving the potential of this strategy to enhance stent endothelialization

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles-cell interaction: New approaches to disclose the fate of membrane-bound and internalised nanoparticles

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    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are popular tools in bone regeneration, but they have also been used for gene delivery and as anticancer drugs. Understanding their mechanism of action, particularly for the latter application, is crucial to predict their toxicity. To this end, we aimed to elucidate the importance of nanoparticle membrane interactions in the cytotoxicity of MG-63 cells using two different types of nanoparticles. In addition, conventional techniques for studying nanoparticle internalisation were evaluated and compared with newer and less exploited approaches. Hydroxyapatite and magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were used as suspensions or compacted as specular discs. Comparison between cells seeded on the discs and those supplemented with the nanoparticles allowed direct interaction of the cell membrane with the material to be ruled out as the main mechanism of toxicity. In addition, standard techniques such as flow cytometry were inconclusive when used to assess nanoparticles toxicity. Interestingly, the use of intracellular calcium fluorescent probes revealed the presence of a high number of calcium-rich vesicles after nanoparticle supplementation in cell culture. These structures could not be detected by transmission electron microscopy due to their liquid content. However, by using cryo-soft X-ray imaging, which was used to visualise the cellular ultrastructure without further treatment other than vitrification and to quantify the linear absorption coefficient of each organelle, it was possible to identify them as multivesicular bodies, potentially acting as calcium stores. In the study, an advanced state of degradation of the hydroxyapatite and magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles within MG-63 cells was observed. Overall, we demonstrate that the combination of fluorescent calcium probes together with cryo-SXT is an excellent approach to investigate intracellular calcium, especially when found in its soluble form.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Mimicking bone extracellular matrix: from BMP-2-derived sequences to osteogenic-multifunctional coatings

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    Cell–material interactions are regulated by mimicking bone extracellular matrix on the surface of biomaterials. In this regard, reproducing the extracellular conditions that promote integrin and growth factor (GF) signaling is a major goal to trigger bone regeneration. Thus, the use of synthetic osteogenic domains derived from bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is gaining increasing attention, as this strategy is devoid of the clinical risks associated with this molecule. In this work, the wrist and knuckle epitopes of BMP-2 are screened to identify peptides with potential osteogenic properties. The most active sequences (the DWIVA motif and its cyclic version) are combined with the cell adhesive RGD peptide (linear and cyclic variants), to produce tailor-made biomimetic peptides presenting the bioactive cues in a chemically and geometrically defined manner. Such multifunctional peptides are next used to functionalize titanium surfaces. Biological characterization with mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the ability of the biointerfaces to synergistically enhance cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, in vivo studies in rat calvarial defects prove the capacity of the biomimetic coatings to improve new bone formation and reduce fibrous tissue thickness. These results highlight the potential of mimicking integrin-GF signaling with synthetic peptides, without the need for exogenous GFs.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Laser-assisted surface modification of zirconia-based materials to guide osteoblast responses for dental applications

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    The project is aimed at investigating the effect of laser surface modification of dental-grade zirconia (3Y-TZP) to guide cellular behaviour. A nanosecond laser was employed to fabricate groove patterns on the surface of 3Y-TZP, yielding three different topographies according to the groove periodicity (30, 50 and 100”m). The resulting topography, microstructure, hardness and hydrothermal degradation resistance of the modified zirconia was assessed by means of advanced characterization techniques. A cellular study was conducted to evaluate the behaviour of human mesenchymal stem cells on the patterned samples in terms of adhesion and cell morphology. The results showed grooves of approximately 1.7”m heigh with pronounced pile-up due to the melting and re-solidification of the material. The phase analysis revealed that no phase transformation is induced during the laser modification; however, a non-homogeneous monoclinic phase distribution was observed on the patterned surfaces after hydrothermal degradation. Finally, all the patterned surfaces allowed cell attachment, increased cell area and favoured cell elongation and alignment in the direction of the laser patterns.Postprint (published version

    Effectiveness of Direct Laser Interference Patterning and Peptide Immobilization on Endothelial Cell Migration for Cardio-Vascular Applications: An In Vitro Study

    Get PDF
    Endothelial coverage of an exposed cardiovascular stent surface leads to the occurrence of restenosis and late-stent thrombosis several months after implantation. To overcome this difficulty, modification of stent surfaces with topographical or biochemical features may be performed to increase endothelial cells’ (ECs) adhesion and/or migration. This work combines both strategies on cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy and studies the potential synergistic effect of linear patterned surfaces that are obtained by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP), coupled with the use of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) peptides. An extensive characterization of the modified surfaces was performed by using AFM, XPS, surface charge, electrochemical analysis and fluorescent methods. The biological response was studied in terms of EC adhesion, migration and proliferation assays. CoCr surfaces were successfully patterned with a periodicity of 10 ”m and two different depths, D (≈79 and 762 nm). RGD and YIGSR were immobilized on the surfaces by CPTES silanization. Early EC adhesion was increased on the peptide-functionalized surfaces, especially for YIGSR compared to RGD. High-depth patterns generated 80% of ECs’ alignment within the topographical lines and enhanced EC migration. It is noteworthy that the combined use of the two strategies synergistically accelerated the ECs’ migration and proliferation, proving the potential of this strategy to enhance stent endothelialization
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