2,470 research outputs found

    Euthanasia Worldwide

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    The Unequal Incidence of Non-Standard Employment across Occupational Groups: An Empirical Analysis of Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Germany and Europe

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    The paper addresses an often neglected question in labour market research: to which extent do outcomes aggregated on the national level disguise occupational diversity in employment conditions? In particular, how and why do occupational groups differ with regard to the incidence of non-standard employment? To explore these questions, the paper derives a detailed occupational scheme from the literature, capturing the variety of labour market outcomes within countries. In a second step, the scheme is theoretically linked to the topic of non-standard work. It is argued that different degrees of skill specificity across occupational groups produce diverging incentives for flexible and long-term employment, respectively. This leads to the expectation of (some) service-sector occupations showing stronger tendencies towards non-standard employment than those in the industrial sector. Based on European and German micro data, the categorisation is used to decompose various labour market indicators. The results clearly demonstrate the unequal incidence of non-standard employment along the lines of the suggested categorisation. Moreover, the longitudinal perspective suggests that traditionally functioning occupational groups will be crowded out by more destandardised ones.temporary employment, low-pay, labour market dualisation, occupational groups, post-industrial labour markets, Germany

    Employer Preferences and Social Policy: Business and the Development of Job Security Regulations in Germany since World War I

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    This article examines the role of business in the historical development of job security regulations in Germany from their creation in the inter-war period to the dawn of the crisis of the 'German Model' in the 1980s. It contrasts the varieties of capitalism approach, which sees business as protagonists, or at least consenters, in the development of job security regulations with a conflict-oriented approach, which sees the labour movement as protagonists and business as antagonists in the development of job security regulations. The empirical analysis is based on primary and secondary sources and shows that at no point in time German employers preferred strict over flexible job security regulations. Quite the contrary, high levels of job security regulations have been forced upon employers by radicalized labour movements in periods of business weakness in the aftermath of both World Wars.job security regulations, Germany, institutional change, varieties of capitalism, power resources, industrial relations

    Reforming German Labor Market Institutions: A Dual Path to Flexibility

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    Germany has always been one of the prime examples of institutional complementarities between social insurance, a rather passive welfare state, strong employment protection and collective bargaining that stabilize diversified quality production. This institutional arrangement was criticized for being the main cause of inferior labor market performance and increasing fiscal pressure on the welfare state while at the same time inhibiting institutional change. However, over the last 15 years, a sequence of institutional reforms has fundamentally modified the functioning of the German labor market and increased both flexibility and job creation capacities through two intimately linked processes that redefined the line between inactivity, the flexible and the standard segment of the labor market. On the one hand, policy changes facilitated the expansion of flexible or 'atypical' jobs, whereas increasing flexibility of the standard employment relationship resulted from wage moderation and working time flexibility. While at the outset of this reform sequence German had a small, but relatively egalitarian labor market, the number of jobs, but also their diversity has increased.Germany, labor market reforms, atypical employment, standard employment relationship

    The Use of Flexible Measures to Cope with Economic Crises in Germany and Brazil

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    This study gives a comparative overview of labor market dynamics and institutional arrangements in Germany and Brazil with particular emphasis on industrial relations, wage setting, unemployment benefits, employment protection and vocational training. The paper shows that institutions determine the mode of adjustment to changing economic conditions and the role of standard vs. non-standard contracts. Whereas internal flexibility via shorter working time was a dominant mode of adjustment during the 2008-09 crisis in the German manufacturing sector, in Brazil such plant-level flexibility to avoid dismissals was less prominent.dismissal protection, working time, labor market flexibility, Germany, Brazil

    Harvey Swados

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    PAUL MARX teaches at the University of New Haven

    Finding topological subgraphs is fixed-parameter tractable

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    We show that for every fixed undirected graph HH, there is a O(∣V(G)∣3)O(|V(G)|^3) time algorithm that tests, given a graph GG, if GG contains HH as a topological subgraph (that is, a subdivision of HH is subgraph of GG). This shows that topological subgraph testing is fixed-parameter tractable, resolving a longstanding open question of Downey and Fellows from 1992. As a corollary, for every HH we obtain an O(∣V(G)∣3)O(|V(G)|^3) time algorithm that tests if there is an immersion of HH into a given graph GG. This answers another open question raised by Downey and Fellows in 1992

    Varying Coefficient Tensor Models for Brain Imaging

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    We revisit a multidimensional varying-coefficient model (VCM), by allowing regressor coefficients to vary smoothly in more than one dimension, thereby extending the VCM of Hastie and Tibshirani. The motivating example is 3-dimensional, involving a special type of nuclear magnetic resonance measurement technique that is being used to estimate the diffusion tensor at each point in the human brain. We aim to improve the current state of the art, which is to apply a multiple regression model for each voxel separately using information from six or more volume images. We present a model, based on P-spline tensor products, to introduce spatial smoothness of the estimated diffusion tensor. Since the regression design matrix is space-invariant, a 4-dimensional tensor product model results, allowing more efficient computation with penalized array regression

    Abortion. One issue?

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    En los últimos años, el tema del aborto ha sido abordado repetidas veces, de forma aislada, como si se tratara de uno sólo de los muchos problemas sociales a los que tiene que enfrentarse la sociedad moderna. En este artículo, el autor subraya sin regatear palabras, que un planteamiento así carece de validez: el aborto no es «un problema más», un problema aparte, sino de hecho, un eslabón de importancia vital en la cadena anti-natalista, que tiene como última manifestación la eutanasia. En realidad, se ofrece en este artículo una documentación abundante que demuestra claramente que no se puede arrancar el tema del aborto del contexto que le es propio, es decir, el ataque y desprecio a ultranza de la vida como realidad sagrada. En muchos países del llamado -mundo desarrollado», los efectos de las leyes liberales con referencia al aborto, así como de la visión permisiva que es, al mismo tiempo, resultado y manifestación de las ideas que inspiraron dichas leyes, han sido -para enumerar sólo unos pocos males que hallan su origen en el utilitarismo al margen de Dios- los siguientes: el alarmante declive de la natalidad y las consecuencias adversas que dicho declive supone; el aumento de la irresponsabilidad en materia sexual, especialmente en los jóvenes; el aumento de abortos ilegales e incluso de nacimientos ilegítimos, así como de enfermedades venéreas; la destrucción de la familia; el consenso cada vez mayor en torno a la aceptación de la eutanasia. Se ve, pues, que el autor puede con razón afirmar que el aborto no es «un tema aparte», sino un conjunto explosivo de temas, una especie de pulpo maligno cuyos tentáculos tocan a una infinidad de aspectos de la sociedad. los efectos del aborto son múltiples; su apetito, incontrolado. El autor basa sus afirmaciones en los resultados de investigaciones llevadas a cabo en muchas partes del mundo, y en las opiniones de numerosos expertos que han colaborado con él sobre este tema. Una y otra vez, se ve que carece de sentido tratar el aborto como -un solo tema», ya que abunda la documentación -tanto histórica como actual- en contra de este planteamiento que, en el mejor de los casos, parte Simplemente de la ingenuidad. Frecuentemente, no obstante, dicho planteamiento se halla defendido precisamente por aquellos que cosechan las mayores ganancias de la práctica del aborto
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