188 research outputs found

    Estratégias didáticas e intervenções pedagógicas construtivistas e explícitas na alfabetização

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    Esta monografia caracteriza-se por uma análise documental de 2 casos, sendo cada um deles um diário de classe de professora em formação pela Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul no Curso de Pedagogia, ambos produzidos nos estágios curriculares obrigatórios realizados em Escolas Estaduais localizadas na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS, em turmas de primeiro ano do Ensino Fundamental no segundo semestre do ano de 2018. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar o uso de estratégias didáticas de cunho construtivista e/ou de cunho explícito e as interações pedagógicas na alfabetização presentes nos planejamentos das professoras estagiárias. Para o referencial teórico são abordados autores como Magda Soares, Antoni Zabala, César Coll, Isabel Solé, Sandra Corazza, entre outros. A partir do material empírico foram elaborados dois grandes eixos analíticos, um deles caracterizado pelas modalidades: Exercícios - aquelas atividades individuais com objetivos de exercer o conteúdo apresentado, podendo ser com folhas estruturadas, atividades a partir do quadro, ou jogos e dinâmicas em que os alunos executem individualmente; Dinâmicas em grupo - explicações, leituras, jogos, atividades, em que todos os alunos participam juntos, ou em grandes grupos; Avaliações - atividades com o intuito de avaliar o conhecimento do aluno. E o outro eixo analítico que classifica as modalidades anteriormente citadas por intervenção e/ou estratégia de cunho construtivistas - aquelas em que há a intenção do aluno apropriar-se do conhecimento de maneira não diretiva; e intervenções e/ou estratégias de cunho explícito - quando há a intenção de transmitir para o aluno o conhecimento visível e oral, de maneira direta. A partir desta análise, foi criado um quadro quantitativo e comparativo com o qual foi possível chegar às considerações quantitativas e qualitativas presentes neste trabalho, que são elas: as maiores possibilidades de estratégias e intervenções na alfabetização são de cunho construtivista e intervenções explícitas (ou vice versa), ou seja, de modo geral os métodos estão vinculados uns aos outros, não em servir as uma teoria, mas sim as necessidades dos alunos

    Forensic Human Identification for Cutaneous Microbiome, a Brief Review

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    Forensic Science compounds many study areas in context of solving crimes, one of which is the forensic microbiology. Combined with genomic approaches, microbiology has shown strong performance in studies regarding the relationship between microorganisms present on human skin and environment. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has contributed significantly to characterization of microbial complexity and their connection to human being. The purpose of this work consists of a historical overview of scientific articles, demonstrating the growth and possibility of using skin microbiome in forensic identification. Studies about use of cutaneous microbiome in human identification, as well its forensic approaches, were looked into for writing of this review. Comparisons among cutaneous microbial communities and manipulated objects have been tested using 16S rRNA, as well as a thorough sequencing of the bacterial genome. From use of ecological measures of distance to genetic markers with nucleotide variants and predictive algorithms, research has shown promising results for advances in field of forensic identification. The development of metagenomic microbial panel markers, named hidSkinPlax for targeted sequencing has been designed and tested with great results. Research results show satisfactory potential in human identification by cutaneous microbiome and the possibility for contributive use in elucidating crimes

    Single-Center Experience With Liver Transplant Using Donors With Very High Transaminase Levels

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    OBJECTIVES: Elevation of transaminases has been used as a marker of hepatic ischemic injury and as a crucial parameter for liver graft assessment. However, analysis of serum transaminases has limitations regarding the quantitative assessment of liver necrosis and is not a reliable predictor of outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all liver transplants (N = 238) performed at the UMass Memorial Medical Center from 2009 to 2013. RESULTS: Fourteen liver grafts showed high peak aminotransferases alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at \u3e 1000 U/L. This high aminotransferase group was compared with 224 donors with low transaminase levels (ALT/AST \u3c 1000 U/L). The high transaminase donors had a median peak AST level of 3216 U/L (range, 1823-13?030 U/L) and ALT level of 2677 U/L (range, 812-7080 U/L). The high transaminase donors showed higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, international normalized ratio, total bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyltransferase compared with low transaminase donors; however, only lactate dehydrogenase results reached statistical significance. None of the grafts from the high transaminase donors showed primary nonfunction. Three-year graft and patient survival rates were similar in both groups (75% vs 80% [P = .48] and 72% vs 82% [P = .33], respectively). In an analysis of the discard rate of livers over a 10-year period in the United States using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database, the discard rate of livers with high aminotransferase levels was 69.14% compared with 22.23% for livers with low transaminase levels. CONCLUSIONS: Liver grafts from donors with high transaminase levels can lead to clinical results that are similar to liver grafts from donors who had lower peak transaminase levels

    MAGIA E ENCANTAMENTO NO ISLÃ: AMULETOS E PRÁTICA RELIGIOSA POPULAR

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    Práticas mágicas são produtos religiosos semióticos e semanticamente sincréticos, articuladas com aspectos específicos das práticas religiosas populares. No islamismo, a magia se manifesta por meio de amuletos e talismãs, contendo os nomes de Deus e trechos do Corão. O objetivo deste artigo é delimitar práticas mágicas muçulmanas. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica nas plataformas LILACS, Google Scholar e Scielo e nos registros de museus. Foram encontrados dados que revelam que o mal é representado de acordo com o imaginário de cada cultura e a ideia de mal no Islamismo, Allah é bondoso e soberano em tudo, predestinando a vida dos seres humanos e do mundo. Não há mal que se sobressaia ou se iguale a Ele, pois Ele é tudo que é e tudo o que não é. Os elementos mágicos mais recorrentes foram amuletos, anéis, a Mão de Fátima, além da forma do hexagrama e do pentagrama. Identificou-se as ideias de que Allah é o único capaz de abençoar ou livrar os seres humanos. O mal cumpre um papel na organização do mundo e existe porque Allah permite. Todos os desejos e orações são direcionados para Allah, e amuletos são usados para fortalecer as súplicas e o amor a Allah. Os amuletos têm diferentes padrões culturais e as frases do Alcorão são comuns neles

    “Exu Corona”: Demonization of Exu and Religious Intolerance

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    Identifica-se o racismo como problema estrutural da sociedade ao cotejar os casos de violência e preconceito contra as religiões de matrizes africanas no Brasil, O trabalho analisa a intolerância religiosa como reflexo do processo de colonização do país que ainda reflete no comportamento fenomenológico da atualidade pelo processo de demonização de determinadas entidades. Exu é uma das figuras que melhor representa o afastamento imposto sobre as culturas africanas, o que inclusive condiciona sua incompreensão por parte da população brasileira, predominante negra. A demonização desta divindade africana em específico, retrata heranças da moralidade e medos europeus estimulados durante a Idade Média, ligados principalmente à doenças e à sexualidade. Atributos pejorativos a Exu, como “Exu Corona” ou “Pandemônia”, indicam processo de demonização de divindades de religião de matriz africana como forma de canalizar angústias sociais para ganhos próprios. O processo de educação religiosa pode ser importante meio de transformação social pela problematização do contraste entre essência e aparência associados a Exu como forma de resistência. This article seeks to reflect on the question: If Exu were learned from the understanding of his original culture, what would be the social impact? Pejorative attributes to Exu, such as "Exu Corona", indicate the process of demonizing its characteristics. When analyzing the alarming increase in violence and prejudice towards religions of African origin in Brazil, we turn our eyes to a structural problem in society, racism. The religious intolerance that is part of the country's colonization still reflects the current phenomenological behavior, where ignorance and the distance from critical thinking are present. Exu is one of the figures that best represents the imposing distance from African culture, which also conditions his incomprehension on the part of the Brazilian population, predominantly black people. The demonization of this African deity in particular portrays European moralities and fears during the Middle Ages, linked mainly to sexuality. The concept of the word demon in the Christian system does not even exist within Afro-Brazilian cosmology, therefore, we speak of the same divinity from the point of view of two different religious and cultural strands

    Donor Diabetes and Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase the Risk of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation

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    BACKGROUND: Both prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) and donor history of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with reduced graft survival after liver transplantation. However, it is unknown whether the adverse effect of prolonged CIT on posttransplant graft survival is more pronounced after transplant with DM versus non-DM donor grafts. METHODS: The study sample included 58 226 liver transplant recipients (2002-2015) from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Multivariable Cox survival regression with interaction analysis was used to quantify the extent to which history of donor DM (n = 6478) potentiates the adverse effect of prolonged ( \u3e /=8 hours) CIT (n = 18 287) on graft survival. RESULTS: Donor DM and CIT 8 hours or longer were each associated with increased risk of graft failure (GF) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.35 and aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.32-1.53, respectively) compared with transplanted grafts without either risk factor. However, the combination of DM and CIT 8 hours or longer was associated with a higher risk of GF than either factor alone (aHR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.55-2.06) and had a synergy index of 1.30. The interaction was significant on a multiplicative scale in the later postoperative period, days 31 to 365 (P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that liver grafts from DM donors are more susceptible to the adverse effects of prolonged CIT than livers from non-DM donors. We need to be cognizant that they are more susceptible to ischemic injury, and this may be considered during the allocation process

    Association Between Sarcopenia and Functional Status in Liver Transplant Patients

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    OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence shows that frailty and functional performance predict liver transplant outcomes. The Organ Procurement and Transplant Network uses the Karnofsky Performance Status scale to adjust for transplant center case mix in assessing quality measures. This study explores the strength of the relationship between Karnofsky Performance Status scores and objective measures of frailty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study includes 136 adult, first-time liver transplant recipients at UMass Memorial (2006-2015) who had 2 abdominal computed tomography scans available (at \u3c /= 90 days pretransplant and \u3e /= 7 days before that). We analyzed the relationship between Karnofsky Performance Status and muscle wasting using absolute and change in psoas muscle size and quality pretransplant. RESULTS: The mean age was 55 years, mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease was 22, and 34% of patients were women. In the study group, 50% of patients had sarcopenia pretransplant and 71.3% demonstrated declined lean psoas area at an average rate of 11% per month. Patients who experienced muscle wasting at a rate of \u3e /= 1% per month had 2.83 times the risk (95% confidence interval, 1.18-6.80) of being severely impaired/disabled pretransplant. The risk increased by 2.32-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.44-3.75) for every standard deviation decrease in pretransplant lean psoas area. CONCLUSIONS: Provider-assessed physical health status moderately correlates with objective measures of frailty

    Impact of recipient functional status on 1-year liver transplant outcomes

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    BACKGROUND: The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale has been widely validated for clinical practice for over 60 years.AIM: To examine the extent to which poor pre-transplant functional status, assessed using the KPS scale, is associated with increased risk of mortality and/or graft failure at 1-year post-transplantation.METHODS: This study included 38278 United States adults who underwent first, non-urgent, liver-only transplantation from 2005 to 2014 (Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients). Functional impairment/disability was categorized as severe, moderate, or none/normal. Analyses were conducted using multivariable-adjusted Cox survival regression models.RESULTS: The median age was 56 years, 31% were women, median pre-transplant Model for End-Stage for Liver Disease score was 18. Functional impairment was present in 70%; one-quarter of the sample was severely disabled. After controlling for key recipient and donor factors, moderately and severely disabled patients had a 1-year mortality rate of 1.32 [confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.44] and 1.73 (95%CI: 1.56-1.91) compared to patients with no impairment, respectively. Subjects with moderate and severe disability also had a multivariable-adjusted 1-year graft failure rate of 1.13 (CI: 1.02-1.24) and 1.16 (CI: 1.02-1.31), respectively.CONCLUSION: Pre-transplant functional status is a useful prognostic indicator for 1-year post-transplant patient and graft survival.</p

    Rio de Janeiro water crisis: a metagenomic approach

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    In Rio de Janeiro’s metropolitan area comprise, over 8 million inhabitants receive drinking water from Company responsible for water and sewage, capted by the Guandu river’s water treatment station. Such water started to present unusual odour, taste and color in January 2020, as stated by the population itself. Results obtained through raw water microbiome metagenomic analysis inferred cyanobacteria presence, with Planktothricoides gender and Planktothricoides sp. SR001 being the most abundant gender and organism. Such do pose a risk to public health, as they are able to produce cyanotoxins that affect human health
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