254,287 research outputs found

    Olfactory influences on appetite and satiety in humans

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    Northerly Distribution of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Eastern Pacific and Relation to ENSO Events

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    Twenty-nine verified records of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, from British Columbia and Alaska waters (1961–2004) are presented. Record locations ranged from lat. 48°48ʹN to lat. 60°17ʹN, including the northernmost occurrence of a white shark and the first report of this species from the central Bering Sea. White sharks recorded from the study area were generally large, with 95% falling between 3.8 and 5.4 m in length. Mature white sharks of both sexes occur in British Columbia and Alaska waters, although they do not necessarily reproduce there. White sharks actively feed in the study area; their diet is similar to that reported for this species from Washington and northern California waters. Sea surface temperature (SST) concurrent with white shark records from the study area ranged from 16°C to between 6.4°C and 5.0°C, extending the lower extreme of the range of SST from which this species has been previously reported. White shark strandings are rarely reported, yet 16 (55%) of the records in this study are of beached animals; strandings generally occurred later in the year and at lower latitudes than nonstrandings. No significant correlation was found between white shark records in the study area and El Niño events and no records occurred during La Niña events. The data presented here indicate that white sharks are more abundant in the cold waters of British Columbia and Alaska than previous records suggest

    Decision problems and profinite completions of groups

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    We consider pairs of finitely presented, residually finite groups P\hookrightarrow\G for which the induced map of profinite completions \hat P\to \hat\G is an isomorphism. We prove that there is no algorithm that, given an arbitrary such pair, can determine whether or not PP is isomorphic to \G. We construct pairs for which the conjugacy problem in \G can be solved in quadratic time but the conjugacy problem in PP is unsolvable. Let J\mathcal J be the class of super-perfect groups that have a compact classifying space and no proper subgroups of finite index. We prove that there does not exist an algorithm that, given a finite presentation of a group \G and a guarantee that \G\in\mathcal J, can determine whether or not \G\cong\{1\}. We construct a finitely presented acyclic group \H and an integer kk such that there is no algorithm that can determine which kk-generator subgroups of \H are perfect