188 research outputs found

    Interaction of Disease, Drugs, and Disposition in Ewing\u27s Sarcoma Patients

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    Ewing\u27s Sarcoma is a pediatric bone cancer that is highly aggressive, leading to a five year survival rate of not only 30% even with multi-modal treatment protocols. Improved therapeutic options are desperately needed. Our research has focused on the ability of the psychoactive cannabinoid, ajulemic acid, to induce apoptosis and decrease metastatic potential in cells from members of the Ewing Sarcoma family of tumors. Recently, we explored the effects of the naturally-occuring cannabinoid, cannabidiol, on three-dimensional spheroids that mimic the cellular components and microenvironment of Ewing\u27s tumors. We looked at how this treatment affects VEGF, a mediator of angiogenesis, to determine if these cannabinoids work through similar cellular pathways. Data with cannabidiol can then be compared to data collected from ajulemic acid studies to determine if these cannabinoids work through similar cellular pathways

    The Two Cultures of Engineering Education:Looking Back and Moving Forward

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    The prevalent historical model of engineering education is centered on a conception of engineering as a technical discipline. However, engineering students are increasingly expected to develop nontechnical competencies for their workforce preparation and professional responsibility. In particular, ethics is an important outcome of engineering education. Ethics has roots in the humanities and social science (HSS), creating a tension between the technical culture of engineering and its engagement with these disciplines. There is a persistent disconnection between the engineering and HSS cultures, which impacts how ethics is valorised and integrated in the curricula. This chapter explores the dichotomy between how technical and nontechnical learning outcomes are addressed in engineering education and its implications for ethics. Drawing on two studies that were independently designed and conducted in Ireland and the US, this chapter synthesizes the perspectives of educators across the two national contexts. Educators in both countries completed semi-structured interviews to understand their practices and perceptions related to engineering ethics. The interviews uncovered four themes related to the de-prioritization of ethics in engineering education: the weight assigned to ethics in accreditation, the piecemeal integration of ethics in the engineering curriculum, the perceived status of ethics as soft and ancillary, and the lack of faculty training. Based on these findings, the chapter concludes with recommendations to bridge the divide between technical and nontechnical learning outcomes and support the more cohesive and interdisciplinary integration of ethics in engineering education.</p

    From colloidal dispersions to colloidal pastesthrough solid–liquid separation processes

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    Solid–liquid separation is an operation that starts with a dispersion of solid particles in a liquid and removes some of the liquid from the particles, producing a concentrated solid paste and a clean liquid phase. It is similar to thermodynamic processes where pressure is applied to a system in order to reduce its volume. In dispersions, the resistance to this osmotic compression depends on interactions between the dispersed particles. The first part of this work deals with dispersions of repelling particles, which are either silica nanoparticles or synthetic clay platelets, dispersed in aqueous solutions. In these conditions, each particle is surrounded by an ionic layer, which repels other ionic layers. This results in a structure with strong short-range order. At high particle volume fractions, the overlap of ionic layers generates large osmotic pressures; these pressures may be calculated, through the cell model, as the cost of reducing the volume of each cell. The variation of osmotic pressure with volume fraction is the equation of state of the dispersion. The second part of this work deals with dispersions of aggregated particles, which are silica nanoparticles, dispersed in water and flocculated by multivalent cations. This produces large bushy aggregates, with fractal structures that are maintained through interparticle surface– surface bonds. As the paste is submitted to osmotic pressures, small relative displacements of the aggregated particles lead to structural collapse. The final structure is made of a dense skeleton immersed in a nearly homogeneous matrix of aggregated particles. The variation of osmotic resistance with volume fraction is the compression law of the paste; it may be calculated through a numerical model that takes into account the noncentral interparticle forces. According to this model, the response of aggregated pastes to applied stress may be controlled through the manipulation of interparticle adhesion

    Pivoting in the pandemic:a qualitative study of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the times of COVID-19

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    OBJECTIVES: We examined the personal and professional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development, practice, and shifting values of child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAP), in order to inform how the field may move forward post-pandemic. METHODS: We conducted individual semi-structured interviews of child and adolescent psychiatrists (n = 24) practicing in the United States. Participants were selected as a diverse purposive sample of active members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). We analyzed anonymized transcripts through iterative coding using thematic analysis aided by NVivo software. RESULTS: We identified three main thematic domains within participants’ response to the pandemic, which have engendered a reevaluation of and a recommitment to the aims of each clinician and the field of CAP more broadly. These domains, paired with representative questions, include: (1) Unsettling, or “who have we been?” (identifying discontents such as daily inefficiencies and intraprofessional loss of trust); (2) Adaptation, or “who are we now?” (exploring affordances and limitations of virtual work, and the evolution of personal and professional identity); and (3) Reimagination, or “who will we become?” (renewing a commitment to psychiatry as advocacy). Even as we identified a collective agreement toward the need for implementing change, just what needs to change, and how that change will be realized, remain contested. CONCLUSION: These three thematic domains, augmented by a national confrontation with race and equity, have engendered a field-wide reckoning with known inequities. They have reinvigorated collective responses and calls to action. The divergent mindsets to change and leadership have provided an aperture for what values and practices the field might instill in its next generation of practitioners. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13034-021-00382-6

    Everyday Strategies of Aesthetic Resistance

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    The three papers of this dissertation argue that our everyday aesthetic activities and experiences can be enlisted in our resistance projects. Ordinary decisions about how we get dressed and how we attend to our bodies can, when properly considered, help enable resistance to oppressive conditions or instances. Furthermore, there are some cases when everyday aesthetic activity actually constitutes resistance, rather than merely enabling it. By taking on these roles, everyday aesthetics and body aesthetics help promote our well-being. The first paper argues that aesthetic attention to embodiment helps those experiencing sexual objectification challenge objectifying narratives. This is possible because aesthetic attention to embodiment both makes subjectivity salient and encourages us to value it. The second paper argues that respectability politics are a significantly aesthetic strategy for anti-racist work. In addition to attending to self-presentation as a part of racial uplift, respectability politics also linked personal beauty and antiracist work. The third paper argues that, although aesthetic labor is often intertwined with injustices and disparities of power, it is also an important mechanism in many kinds of liberatory struggles. Furthermore, aesthetic labor matters to our ability to live flourishing lives
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