4,458 research outputs found

    El paisaje rural antropogénico de Aisén, Chile: Estructura y dinámica de la vegetación [The anthropogenic rural landscape of Aisen, Chile: Structure and vegetation dynamic]

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    We studied the dynamic of the vegetation degradation in a rural anthropogenic mosaic vegetal landscape of the Aisen Region, Chile to establish relations of origin in space and time between communities and propose series of degradation. With plant sociological methodology we make up 50 vegetation samples. The initial table was sorted using differential species in 7 communities: nire scrub (Anemone multifida-Nothofagus antarctica), silvipasture with nire, silvipasture with chacay, trebol-ballica prairie (Bromus catharticus-Trifolium repens), chepica-cadillo prairie (Acaena ovalifolia-Agrostis capillaris), cadillo-Aira prairie and cadillo steppe, which were compared in their systematic, biological and origin spectra. The initial table previously transformed into a data matrix was treated with multivariate statistical analysis of classification (cluster analysis) and ordination (principal components analysis). Finally using the Ellenberg community similarity coefficient were compared and distributed in a communities constellation. The flora of the initial plant sociological table consisted of 78 species with a predominance of annual and perennial herbaceous foreign species that indicated a large anthropic influence. The following vegetation dynamic of degradation was established: fire scrub is degraded by grazing in a nire silvipasture, which is transformed in a anthropogenic overgrazed trebol-ballica prairie this becomes a cadillo-Aira prairie, which by default ends in a cadillo steppe without human management possibility. We discussed the results and applicability of the using methods.Se estudió la dinámica de degradación de la vegetación en un mosaico vegetal antropogénico del paisaje rural de la Región de Aisén para establecer las posibles relaciones de origen tanto espacial como temporal entre las comunidades y proponer series de degradación. Se trabajó con metodología fitosociológica levantando 50 censos de vegetación. La tabla inicial fue ordenada usando especies diferenciales en 7 comunidades: matorral de ñire (Anemone multifida-Nothofagus antarctica), silvopastoreo con ñire, silvopastoreo con chacay, pradera de trébol-ballica (Bromus catharticus-Trifolium repens), pradera de chépica-cadillo (Acaena ovalifolia-Agrostis capillaris), pradera de cadillo-Aira y estepa de cadillo, las que se compararon en sus espectros sistemáticos, biológicos y de origen. Posteriormente, se realizaron análisis estadísticos multivariados de clasificación (conglomerados) y de ordenación (componentes principales) a la tabla inicial transformada previamente en una matriz de datos. Finalmente, utilizando el índice de Ellenberg se compararon las comunidades encontradas, las que se distribuyeron en una constelación de comunidades. La flora de la tabla inicial estuvo conformada por 78 especies con un predominio de plantas herbáceas perennes y anuales alóctonas que indican un alto grado de antropización. Se estableció la siguiente dinámica vegetacional de degradación: el matorral de ñire se degrada por pastoreo a un silvopastoreo con ñire, el cual se transforma en una pradera antropogénica, con sobrepastoreo ésta da origen a una pradera de cadillo-Aira, la que por abandono desemboca en una estepa de cadillo. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos y la aplicabilidad del método

    DPDnet: A Robust People Detector using Deep Learning with an Overhead Depth Camera

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    In this paper we propose a method based on deep learning that detects multiple people from a single overhead depth image with high reliability. Our neural network, called DPDnet, is based on two fully-convolutional encoder-decoder neural blocks based on residual layers. The Main Block takes a depth image as input and generates a pixel-wise confidence map, where each detected person in the image is represented by a Gaussian-like distribution. The refinement block combines the depth image and the output from the main block, to refine the confidence map. Both blocks are simultaneously trained end-to-end using depth images and head position labels. The experimental work shows that DPDNet outperforms state-of-the-art methods, with accuracies greater than 99% in three different publicly available datasets, without retraining not fine-tuning. In addition, the computational complexity of our proposal is independent of the number of people in the scene and runs in real time using conventional GPUs

    Efficacy of bortezomib in sarcomas with high levels of MAP17 (PDZK1IP1

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    Sarcomas are malignant tumors accounting for a high percentage of cancer morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Surgery and radiation therapy are the accepted treatments for most sarcomas; however, patients with metastatic disease are treated with systemic chemotherapy. Many tumors display marginal levels of chemoresponsiveness, and new treatment approaches are needed. MAP17 is a small non-glycosylated membrane protein overexpressed in carcinomas. The levels of MAP17 could be used as a prognostic marker to predict the response to bortezomib in hematological malignancies and in breast tumors. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of this oncogene in sarcomas and its relationship with clinico-pathological features, as well as tested whether it can be used as a new biomarker to predict the therapeutic response to bortezomib and new therapies for sarcomas. We found that the levels of MAP17 were related to clinical features and poor survival in a cohort of 69 patients with different sarcoma types, not being restricted to any special subtype of tumor. MAP17 expression is associated with poor overall survival (p<0.001) and worse disease-free survival (p=0.002). Cell lines with high levels of MAP17 show a better response to bortezomib in vitro. Furthermore, patient-derived xenografts (PDX) with high levels of MAP17 respond to bortezomib in vivo. Our results showed that this response is due to the lower levels of NFκB and autophagy activation. Therefore, we suggest that MAP17 is a new biomarker to predict the efficacy of bortezomib as a new therapy for sarcomas.España, Consejeria de Ciencia e innovación CTS-6844 and CTS-1848Andalucia, Consejería de Salud PI-0029-2013Andalucia, Consejería de Salud PI-0096-2014Andalucia, Consejería de Salud PI-0306-201

    Identifying SARS-CoV-2 'memory' NK cells from COVID-19 convalescent donors for adoptive cell therapy

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    COVID-19 disease is the manifestation of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which is causing a worldwide pandemic. This disease can lead to multiple and different symptoms, being lymphopenia associated with severity one of the most persistent. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are part of the innate immune system, being fighting against virus-infected cells one of their key roles. In this study, we determined the phenotype of NK cells after COVID-19 and the main characteristic of SARS-CoV-2-specific-like NK population in the blood of convalescent donors. CD57+ NKG2C+ phenotype in SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors indicates the presence of 'memory'/activated NK cells as it has been shown for cytomegalovirus infections. Although the existence of this population is donor dependent, its expression may be crucial for the specific response against SARS-CoV-2, so that, it gives us a tool for selecting the best donors to produce off-the-shelf living drug for cell therapy to treat COVID-19 patients under the RELEASE clinical trial (NCT04578210)

    The nature of circulating CD27+CD43+ B cells

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    Letter to the Editor.-- et al.M.C. van Zelm is supported by fellowships from the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR-Fellowship) and the Erasmus MC, and by Veni grant 916.110.90 from ZonMW/NWO.Peer Reviewe

    Sex-Specific Relationships of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Young Adults

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    This study aims to analyse sex-specific associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in a young-adult population. Sixty participants (21 women, 22.63 ± 4.62 years old) wore a hip accelerometer for 7 consecutive days to estimate their physical activity and sedentarism. Oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products) and inflammatory (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) markers were measured. Student t-tests and single linear regressions were applied. The women presented higher catalase activity and glutathione concentrations, and lower levels of advanced protein-oxidation products, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 than the men (p < 0.05). In the men, longer sedentary time was associated with lower catalase activity (β = −0.315, p = 0.04), and longer sedentary breaks and higher physical-activity expenditures were associated with malondialdehyde (β = −0.308, p = 0.04). Vigorous physical activity was related to inflammatory markers in the women (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, β = 0.437, p = 0.02) and men (interleukin−6, β = 0.528, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the women presented a better redox and inflammatory status than the men; however, oxidative-stress markers were associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviours only in the men. In light of this, women could have better protection against the deleterious effect of sedentarism but a worse adaptation to daily physical activity.This work was partly supported by Universidad de Cádiz (grant number PR2016-051 and PR2019-054), by Instituto de Investigación e Innovación Biomédica de Cádiz (LI19/21IN-CO09), and by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación) (MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033), grants PID2019-110063RA-I00 and PID2020-120034RA-I00. J.C.-P. is supported by a predoctoral grant from the Spanish Ministry of Education (Ministerio de Educación) (grant number FPU19/02326). D.V.-D is funded by the Margarita Salas Postdoctoral Program from European Union Next GenerationEU and University of Cádiz. Partial funding for open access charge: Universidad de Málag

    Diaphragmatic activation correlated with lumbar multifidus muscles and thoracolumbar fascia by B-mode and M-mode ultrasonography in subjects with and without non-specific low back pain: a pilot study.

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    Background and Objectives: The diaphragm, the lumbar multifidus muscles, and the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) execute an important role in the stability of the lumbar spine and their morphology has been modified in subjects with non-specific low back pain (NS-LBP). While it is true that three structures correlate anatomically, the possible functional correlation between them has not been investigated previously in healthy subjects nor in subjects with NS-LBP. The aim of the present study was to examine this functional nexus by means of a comparison based on ultrasonographic parameters of the diaphragm, the lumbar multifidus muscles, and the TLF in subjects with and without NS-LBP. Materials and Methods: A sample of 54 (23 NS-LBP and 31 healthy) subjects were included in the study. The thickness and diaphragmatic excursion at tidal volume (TV) and force volume (FV), the lumbar multifidus muscles thickness at contraction and at rest, and the TLF thickness were evaluated using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) by B-mode and M-mode ultrasonography. The diaphragm thickening capacity was also calculated by thickening fraction (TF) at tidal volume and force volume. Results: There were no significant differences recorded between the activation of the diaphragm and the activation of the lumbar multifidus muscles and TLF for each variable, within both groups. However, there were significant differences recorded between both groups in diaphragm thickness and diaphragm thickening capacity at tidal volume and force volume. Conclusions: Diaphragmatic activation had no functional correlation with the activation of lumbar multifidus muscles and TLF for both groups. Nevertheless, subjects with NS-LBP showed a reduced diaphragm thickness and a lower diaphragm thickening capacity at tidal volume and force volume, compared to healthy subjects
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