19 research outputs found

    Sofosbuvir-based therapy cures hepatitis C virus infection after prior treatment failures in a patient with concurrent lymphoma

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    We report on the first well-tolerated and successful use of sofosbuvir-based therapy in a patient in whom chronic infection with hepatitis C had preceded the development of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient had previously failed numerous attempts to clear the hepatitis C virus with traditional antiviral schedules. We demonstrate that sofosbuvir-based therapy resulted in cure of hepatitis C in a patient who had relapsed during combination therapy with an NS5A inhibitor, an NS3 protease inhibitor and ribavirin, as well as treatment failures to multiple courses of interferon-based therapy. This report also suggests that eradication of hepatitis C virus may result in the short-term prevention of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma relapse. The findings from our case require further validation in future cohorts of patients

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Evolving paradigms

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    In the last years new evidence has accumulated on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) challenging the paradigms that had been holding the scene over the previous 30 years. NAFLD has such an epidemic prevalence as to make it impossible to screen general population looking for NAFLD cases. Conversely, focusing on those cohorts of individuals exposed to the highest risk of NAFLD could be a more rational approach. NAFLD, which can be diagnosed with either non-invasive strategies or through liver biopsy, is a pathogenically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease. The existence of metabolic as opposed to genetic-associated disease, notably including "lean NAFLD" has recently been recognized. Moreover, NAFLD is a systemic condition, featuring metabolic, cardiovascular and (hepatic/extrahepatic) cancer risk. Among the clinico-laboratory features of NAFLD we discuss hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, gallstones, psoriasis and selected endocrine derangements. NAFLD is a precursor of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome and progressive liver disease develops in T2D patients in whom the course of disease is worsened by NAFLD. Finally, lifestyle changes and drug treatment options to be implemented in the individual patient are also critically discussed. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the new concepts on clinical and pathogenic heterogeneity of NAFLD, a systemic disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis and protean clinical manifestations. It is highly prevalent in certain cohorts of individuals who are thus potentially amenable to selective screening strategies, intensive follow-up schedules for early identification of liver-related and extrahepatic complications and in whom earlier and more aggressive treatment schedules should be carried out whenever possible

    Covid-19 and the role of smoking: the protocol of the multicentric prospective study COSMO-IT (COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly).

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    The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco smoking and other lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity and progression, we designed a longitudinal observational study titled COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT). About 30 Italian hospitals in North, Centre and South of Italy joined the study. Its main aims are: 1) to quantify the role of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on the severity and progression of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; 2) to compare smoking prevalence and severity of the disease in relation to smoking in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus patients treated at home; 3) to quantify the association between other lifestyle factors, such as e-cigarette and HTP use, alcohol and obesity and the risk of unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical history information will be gathered for around 3000 hospitalized and 700-1000 home-isolated, laboratory-confirmed, COVID-19 patients. Given the current absence of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2 and the lack of a specific treatment for -COVID-19, prevention strategies are of extreme importance. This project, designed to highly contribute to the international scientific debate on the role of avoidable lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity, will provide valuable epidemiological data in order to support important recommendations to prevent COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality

    NAFLD as a Sexual Dimorphic Disease: Role of Gender and Reproductive Status in the Development and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Inherent Cardiovascular Risk

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    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals’ ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue. Ovarian senescence facilitates both the development of massive hepatic steatosis and the fibrotic progression of liver disease in an experimental overfed zebrafish model. Consistently, estrogen deficiency, by potentiating hepatic inflammatory changes, hastens the progression of disease in a dietary model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) developing in ovariectomized mice fed a high-fat diet. In humans, NAFLD more often affects men; and premenopausal women are equally protected from developing NAFLD as they are from cardiovascular disease. It would be expected that early menarche, definitely associated with estrogen activation, would produce protection against the risk of NAFLD. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that early menarche may confer an increased risk of NAFLD in adulthood, excess adiposity being the primary culprit of this association. Fertile age may be associated with more severe hepatocyte injury and inflammation, but also with a decreased risk of liver fibrosis compared to men and postmenopausal status. Later in life, ovarian senescence is strongly associated with severe steatosis and fibrosing NASH, which may occur in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deficiency is deemed to be responsible for these findings via the development of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. Estrogen supplementation may at least theoretically protect from NAFLD development and progression, as suggested by some studies exploring the effect of hormonal replacement therapy on postmenopausal women, but the variable impact of different sex hormones in NAFLD (i.e., the pro-inflammatory effect of progesterone) should be carefully considered

    A randomized-controlled study of intrathecal versus epidural thoracic analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery.

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    Background. We sought to determine the effectiveness of continuous intrathecal thoracic analgesia (ITA) in comparison with continuous epidural thoracic analgesia (ETA) for the management of postoperative pain after abdominal cancer surgery in a randomised controlled study. Materials and methods. Catheters were inserted at T8-10 level for both techniques. Sixty patients were randomized to receive ITA providing levobupivacaine 0.25%, at 0.5–0–7 ml/h, associated with a single bolus of morphine 0.15 mg, or ETA with levobupivacaine 0.25% 4–6 ml/h and a single bolus of epidural morphine 2–3 mg. Data were collected before discharging from recovery room to the surgical ward, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 24 h, and 48 h after operation. The primary outcome was pain intensity evaluation. Postoperative morphine consumption, hemodynamics, fluids, and blood losses for the first postoperative 48 h, surgical outcome, hospital stay, and complications were also collected. Results. Pain intensity at rest mean values ranged from 1.12 to 1.44 and from 1.04 to 1.20 in ITA group and ETA group, respectively. Dynamic pain intensity mean values ranged from 1.28 to 1.70 and from 1.16 to 1.80 in ITA group and ETA group, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups. Total amount morphine consumption was minimal in both groups, 4.4 mg (±2.9) and 3.1 mg (±2.4), for ITA and ETA groups, respectively. There were no severly sedated patients. Hemodynamic variables, diuresis, amounts of fluids, and red cell transfusion were equivalent between the groups. No important technical complications were reported in both groups and postoperative surgical complications were not related to the examined techniques. Conclusion. ITA and ETA produced the same levels of analgesia, without relevant complication

    Influence of Ripening on Chemical Characteristics of a Traditional Italian Cheese: Provolone del Monaco

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    The envisaged promotion of local products contributes to environmental protection and is a valid tool for the promotion of socioeconomic development, enhancement of territories, and biodiversity preservation and sustainability. Provolone del Monaco is a semi hard pasta filata cheese granted PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) designation by the European Union. Provolone del Monaco is obtained from raw cow’s milk, produced in the specific areas of the Lattari Mountains and Sorrento Peninsula (Naples, Italy), and ripened for at least six months. To the best of our knowledge, no studies concerning the complete chemical characterization of Provolone del Monaco cheese are available. In the present study; the chemical characterization (moisture; pH; titratable acidity; nitrogen; and fat content), fatty acid composition determined by using gas-chromatography-flame-ionization-detector (GC-FID); volatile organic compounds by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), and maturation indices were evaluated during ripening. Two different average typical cheese sizes (3 kg and 5 kg) and two different internal portions were studied. After 6 months of ripening, the most important changes recorded were the loss of water, the increase in acidity, the nitrogen (as ammonia) release, and the production of volatile organic compounds. The cheese size did not affect the chemical composition of Provolone del Monaco

    Ultrasonographic fatty liver indicator detects mild steatosis and correlates with metabolic/histological parameters in various liver diseases

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    Background and aims Fatty liver is a common feature of different types of liver diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for diagnosing fatty liver are variable. A semi-quantitative ultrasound score, i.e., the ultrasonographic fatty liver indicator (US-FLI), is closely associated with metabolic/histological variables in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic performance of US-FLI in detecting varying degrees of histological steatosis, and to examine the association of US-FLI with metabolic/histological parameters in 352 biopsied patients with various chronic liver diseases (173 with hepatitis C [HCV], 23 with hepatitis B [HBV], 123 with NAFLD and 33 with other etiologies). Results US-FLI accurately detected mild steatosis (minimum amount 10% on histology) with a cut-off value 65 2 (sensitivity 90.1%, specificity 90%), moderate steatosis ( 65 30%) with a cut-off value 65 3 (sensitivity 86.4%, specificity 92.5%) and severe steatosis (> 66%) with a cut-off value 65 5 (sensitivity 88.5%, specificity 87%). US-FLI was correlated with steatosis percentage in each liver disease group as well as with lobular inflammation, ballooning, portal fibrosis, grading and staging in patients with NAFLD or HCV. US-FLI was also correlated with waist circumference, body mass index and insulin resistance both in the whole sample and in each liver disease group. Conclusions US-FLI accurately identifies histological severity and is correlated with metabolic parameters in patients with various steatogenic liver diseases. US-FLI is an easy and versatile tool for the screening of steatosis and the metabolic health of these patients

    Liver Fibrosis Biomarkers Accurately Exclude Advanced Fibrosis and Are Associated with Higher Cardiovascular Risk Scores in Patients with NAFLD or Viral Chronic Liver Disease

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    Liver fibrosis predicts liver-related and cardiovascular outcomes in chronic liver disease patients. We compared the diagnostic performance of various liver fibrosis biomarkers for identifying histological significant/advanced fibrosis. Additionally, the correlations of such liver fibrosis biomarkers with cardiovascular risk (CVR) scores were evaluated. 173 patients with viral hepatitis (157 HCV and 16 HBV) and 107 with a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were consecutively enrolled. Various liver fibrosis biomarkers: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (ARR), AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), Fibrosis-4 (FiB-4), Forns index, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), BARD (body mass index (BMI), AAR, Diabetes) score, and Hepamet fibrosis score (HFS), were used to identify significant/advanced fibrosis. CVR was assessed by using the SCORE, the Progetto CUORE, or the Framingham risk scoring systems. Liver fibrosis biomarkers performed better in predicting advanced rather than significant liver fibrosis in all patients, regardless of chronic liver disease aetiology. Forns index and HFS performed best in predicting advanced fibrosis in patients with viral chronic liver disease and NAFLD. Lower cut-offs of these liver fibrosis biomarkers had high negative predictive values for advanced fibrosis overall, as well as in patients with NAFLD or viral chronic liver disease. FIB-4, Forns index, NFS, and HFS were positively correlated with SCORE and Framingham risk scores. In conclusion, liver fibrosis biomarkers accurately exclude advanced fibrosis and positively correlate with CVR scores in patients with chronic liver disease

    NAFLD as a Sexual Dimorphic Disease: Role of Gender and Reproductive Status in the Development and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Inherent Cardiovascular Risk

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    <p><strong>Article full text</strong></p> <p><br> The full text of this article can be found <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12325-017-0556-1"><b>here</b>.</a><br> <br> <strong>Provide enhanced digital features for this article</strong><br> If you are an author of this publication and would like to provide additional enhanced digital features for your article then please contact <u>[email protected]</u>.<br> <br> The journal offers a range of additional features designed to increase visibility and readership. All features will be thoroughly peer reviewed to ensure the content is of the highest scientific standard and all features are marked as ‘peer reviewed’ to ensure readers are aware that the content has been reviewed to the same level as the articles they are being presented alongside. Moreover, all sponsorship and disclosure information is included to provide complete transparency and adherence to good publication practices. This ensures that however the content is reached the reader has a full understanding of its origin. No fees are charged for hosting additional open access content.<br> <br> Other enhanced features include, but are not limited to:<br> • Slide decks<br> • Videos and animations<br> • Audio abstracts<br> • Audio slides<u></u></p

    Lifestyles and Quality of Life of People with Mental Illness During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    : The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL), daily lifestyle, and mental health of people suffering from a mental disorder. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the prolongation of the COVID-19 emergency on QoL and lifestyles in a sample of 100 outpatients at the Psychiatry Unit in Palermo University Hospital, Italy. QoL was measured through the 12-item Short Form Survey and the COV19-Impact on Quality of Life. Lifestyle changes during the pandemic were measured through the lifestyle change questionnaire. The majority of participants reported a great impact of COVID-19 on the QoL, and almost half reported worsened lifestyles. Worsened lifestyles were predictive of both poor mental and physical health related QoL. These results suggest that people with mental illness need interventions targeting lifestyles, and the mental health service in Italy should adjust to the ongoing pandemic, developing virtual treatments
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