1,702 research outputs found

    Linearitá del calorimetro elettromagnetico di CMS

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    Crystallographic orientations of magnesiochromite inclusions in diamonds: what do they tell us?

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    We have studied by X-ray diffractometry the crystallographic orientation relationships (CORs) between magnesiochromite (mchr) inclusions and their diamond hosts in gem-quality stones from the mines Udachnaya (Siberian Russia), Damtshaa (Botswana) and Panda (Canada); in total 36 inclusions in 23 diamonds. In nearly half of the cases (n = 17), [111]mchr is parallel within error to [111]diamond, but the angular misorientation for other crystallographic directions is generally significant. This relationship can be described as a case of rotational statistical COR, in which inclusion and host share a single axis (1 df). The remaining mchr\u2013diamond pairs (n = 19) have a random COR (2 df). The presence of a rotational statistical COR indicates that the inclusions have physically interacted with the diamond before their final incorporation. Of all possible physical processes that may have influenced mchr orientation, those driven by surface interactions are not considered likely because of the presence of fluid films around the inclusions. Mechanical interaction between euhedral crystals in a fluid-rich environment is therefore proposed as the most likely mechanism to produce the observed rotational COR. In this scenario, neither a rotational nor a random COR can provide information on the relative timing of growth of mchr and diamond. Some multiple, iso-oriented inclusions within single diamonds, however, indicate that mchr was partially dissolved during diamond growth, suggesting a protogenetic origin of these inclusions

    Thinning in black pine (Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold) forests: the economic sustainability of the wood-energy supply chain in a case study in Italy

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    In Italy, black pine has been largely used in reforestation projects in the past. Most of these reforestations are characterized by a high instability, vulnerability, and a limited resistance to atmospheric agents. In this situation, it is crucial to define silvicultural interventions able to increase the ecological stability of black pine stands and at the same time to guarantee the economic sustainability of the wood products obtained. Thinning in black pine forests can provide wood material for energy use. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the economic sustainability of a local wood-energy supply chain applying three different forest management options. The case study was Monte Morello forest, a degraded black pine forest located in Central Italy. The results show that the long-term economic sustainability of the wood-energy supply chain is ensured only when the use of bio-fuel is characterized by high energy efficiency. In addition, the results show that public contributions are fundamental to ensure that silvicultural interventions are realized with a positive economic balance and that to surmount this situation many loggings companies are organizing. Finally, the results highlighted the importance of the quantities of thermal energy sold to ensure the economic and environmental efficiency of the wood-energy supply chain

    Search for supersymmetry in electroweak production with photons and large missing transverse energy in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

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    Results are reported from a search for supersymmetry with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking in electroweak production. Final states with photons and large missing transverse energy ( View the MathML sourceETmiss) were examined. The data sample was collected in pp collisions at View the MathML sources=8TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to 7.4View the MathML sourcefb−1. The analysis focuses on scenarios in which the lightest neutralino has bino- or wino-like components, resulting in decays to photons and gravitinos, where the gravitinos escape undetected. The data were obtained using a specially designed trigger with dedicated low thresholds, providing good sensitivity to signatures with photons, View the MathML sourceETmiss, and low hadronic energy. No excess of events over the standard model expectation is observed. The results are interpreted using the model of general gauge mediation. With the wino mass fixed at 10View the MathML sourceGeV above that of the bino, wino masses below 710View the MathML sourceGeV are excluded at 95% confidence level. Constraints are also set in the context of two simplified models, for which the analysis sets the lowest cross section limits on the electroweak production of supersymmetric particles

    Measurements of t t-bar spin correlations and top quark polarization using dilepton final states in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

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    Measurements of the top quark-antiquark (tt¯) spin correlations and the top quark polarization are presented for tt¯ pairs produced in pp collisions at s√=8  TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5  fb−1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured from the angular distributions of the two selected leptons, both inclusively and differentially, with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the tt¯ system. The measurements are unfolded to the parton level and found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model. A search for new physics in the form of anomalous top quark chromo moments is performed. No evidence of new physics is observed, and exclusion limits on the real part of the chromo-magnetic dipole moment and the imaginary part of the chromo-electric dipole moment are evaluated

    Fossil subduction recorded by quartz from the coesite stability field

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    Metamorphic rocks are the records of plate tectonic processes whose reconstruction relies on correct estimates of the pressures and temperatures (P-T) experienced by these rocks through time. Unlike chemical geothermobarometry, elastic geobarometry does not rely on chemical equilibrium between minerals, so it has the potential to provide information on overstepping of reaction boundaries and to identify other examples of non-equilibrium behavior in rocks. Here we introduce a method that exploits the anisotropy in elastic properties of minerals to determine the unique P and T of entrapment from a single inclusion in a mineral host. We apply it to preserved quartz inclusions in garnet from eclogite xenoliths hosted in Yakutian kimberlites (Russia). Our results demonstrate that quartz trapped in garnet can be preserved when the rock reaches the stability field of coesite (the high-pressure and hightemperature polymorph of quartz) at 3 GPa and 850 \ub0C. This supports a metamorphic origin for these xenoliths and sheds light on the mechanisms of craton accretion from a subducted crustal protolith. Furthermore, we show that interpreting P and T conditions reached by a rock from the simple phase identification of key inclusion minerals can be misleading

    ECAL Front-End Monitoring in the CMS experiment

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    The CMS detector at LHC is equipped with a high precision lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL). The front-end boards and the photodetectors are monitored using a network of DCU (Detector Control Unit) chips located on the detector electronics. The DCU data are accessible through token rings controlled by an XDAQ based software component. Relevant parameters are transferred to DCS (Detector Control System) and stored into the Condition DataBase. The operational experience from the ECAL commissioning at the CMS experimental cavern is discussed and summarized

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pTpT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HTHT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb−1. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pTpT distributions of the leading jets at high pTpT values, the distributions of the HTHT at high-HTHT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values

    Guideline on carotid surgery for stroke prevention: updates from the Italian Society of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. A trend towards personalized medicine

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    Background: This guideline (GL) on carotid surgery as updating of "Stroke: Italian guidelines for Prevention and Treatment" of the ISO-SPREAD Italian Stroke Organization-Group, has recently been published in the National Guideline System and shared with the Italian Society of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (SICVE) and other Scientific Societies and Patient's Association. Methods: GRADE-SIGN version, AGREE quality of reporting checklist. Clinical questions formulated according to the PICO model. Recommendations developed based on clinical questions by a multidisciplinary experts' panel and patients' representatives. Systematic reviews performed for each PICO question. Considered judgements filled by assessing the evidence level, direction, and strength of the recommendations. Results: The panel provided indications and recommendations for appropriate, comprehensive, and individualized management of patients with carotid stenosis. Diagnostic and therapeutic processes of the best medical therapy, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid stenting (CAS) according to the evidences and the judged opinions were included. Symptomatic carotid stenosis in elective and emergency, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, association with ischemic heart disease, preoperative diagnostics, types of anesthesia, monitoring in case of CEA, CEA techniques, comparison between CEA and CAS, post-surgical carotid restenosis, and medical therapy are the main topics, even with analysis of uncertainty areas for risk-benefit assessments in the individual patient (personalized medicine [PM]). Conclusions: This GL updates on the main recommendations for the most appropriate diagnostic and medical-surgical management of patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis to prevent ischemic stroke. This GL also provides useful elements for the application of PM in good clinical practice

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO
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