7,420 research outputs found

    The Effect of Shear Flow on the Helfrich Interaction in Lyotropic Lamellar Systems

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    We study the effect of shear flow on the entropic Helfrich interaction in lyotropic surfactant smectic fluids. Arguing that flow induces an effective anisotropic surface tension in bilayers due to a combination of intermonolayer friction, bilayer collisions and convection, we calculate the reduction in fluctuations and hence the renormalised change in effective compression modulus and steady-state layer spacing. We demonstrate that non-permeable or slowly permeating membranes can be susceptible to a undulatory instability of the Helfrich-Hurault type, and speculate that such an instability could be one source of a transition to multilamellar vesicles.Comment: 14 pages, to appear in Eur Phys J

    NICMOS and VLBA observations of the gravitational lens system B1933+503

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    NICMOS observations of the complex gravitational lens system B1933+503 reveal infrared counterparts to two of the inverted spectrum radio images. The infrared images have arc-like structures. The corresponding radio images are also detected in a VLBA map made at 1.7 GHz with a resolution of 6 mas. We fail to detect two of the four inverted radio spectrum components with the VLBA even though they are clearly visible in a MERLIN map at the same frequency at a different epoch. The absence of these two components could be due to rapid variability on a time-scale less than the time delay, or to broadening of the images during propagation of the radio waves through the ISM of the lensing galaxy to an extent that they fall below the surface brightness detectability threshold of the VLBA observations. The failure to detect the same two images with NICMOS is probably due to extinction in the ISM of the lensing galaxy.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitted to MNRA

    Does angiotensin-1 converting enzyme genotype influence motor or cognitive development after pre-term birth?

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    BACKGROUND: Raised activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may both amplify inflammatory and free radical responses and decrease tissue metabolic efficiency and thus enhance cerebral injury in the preterm infant. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) DD genotype is associated with raised ACE and RAS activity as well as potentially adverse stimuli such as inflammation. The DD genotype has been associated with neurological impairments in the elderly, and thus may be also associated with poorer motor or cognitive development amongst children born preterm prematurely. METHODS: The association of DD genotype with developmental progress amongst 176 Caucasian children born at less than 33 weeks gestation (median birthweight 1475 g, range 645–2480 g; gestation 30 weeks, range 22–32; 108 male) was examined at 2 and 5 1/2 years of age. Measured neuro-cognitive outcomes were cranial ultrasound abnormalities, cerebral palsy, disability, Griffiths Developmental Quotient [DQ] at 2 yrs, and General Cognitive Ability [British Ability Scales-11] and motor performance [ABC Movement], both performed at 5 1/2 yrs. All outcomes were correlated with ACE genotype. RESULTS: The DD genotype was not associated with lower developmental quotients even after accounting for important social variables. CONCLUSION: These data do not support either a role for ACE in the development of cognitive or motor function in surviving infants born preterm or inhibition of ACE as a neuroprotective therapy

    CFHT AO Imaging of the CLASS Gravitational Lens System B1359+154

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    We present adaptive optics imaging of the CLASS gravitational lens system B1359+154 obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in the infrared K band. The observations show at least three brightness peaks within the ring of lensed images, which we identify as emission from multiple lensing galaxies. The results confirm the suspected compound nature of the lens, as deduced from preliminary mass modeling. The detection of several additional nearby galaxies suggests that B1359+154 is lensed by the compact core of a small galaxy group. We attempted to produce an updated lens model based on the CFHT observations and new 5-GHz radio data obtained with the MERLIN array, but there are too few constraints to construct a realistic model at this time. The uncertainties inherent with modeling compound lenses make B1359+154 a challenging target for Hubble constant determination through the measurement of differential time delays. However, time delays will offer additional constraints to help pin down the mass model. This lens system therefore presents a unique opportunity to directly measure the mass distribution of a galaxy group at intermediate redshift.Comment: 12 pages including 3 figures; ApJL accepte

    Lensing galaxies: light or dark?

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    In a recent paper, Hawkins (1997) argues on the basis of statistical studies of double-image gravitational lenses and lens candidates that a large population of dark lenses exists and that these outnumber galaxies with more normal mass-to-light ratios by a factor of 3:1. If correct, this is a very important result for many areas of astronomy including galaxy formation and cosmology. In this paper we discuss our new radio-selected gravitational lens sample, JVAS/CLASS, in order to test and constrain this proposition. We have obtained ground-based and HST images of all multiple-image lens systems in our sample and in 12 cases out of 12 we find the lensing galaxies in the optical and/or near infrared. Our success in finding lensing galaxies creates problems for the dark lens hypothesis. If it is to survive, ad hoc modifications seem to be necessary: only very massive galaxies (more than about one trillion solar masses) can be dark, and the cutoff in mass must be sharp. Our finding of lens galaxies in all the JVAS/CLASS systems is complementary evidence which supports the conclusion of Kochanek et al. (1997) that many of the wide-separation optically-selected pairs are physically distinct quasars rather than gravitational lens systems.Comment: 4 pages, 2 included figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Paper version available on request. This replacement amends the text to allow more discussion of the overlap with astro-ph/971016

    Redshifts of CLASS Radio Sources

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    Spectroscopic observations of a sample of 42 flat-spectrum radio sources from the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) have yielded a mean redshift of =1.27 = 1.27 with an RMS spread of 0.95, at a completeness level of 64%. The sample consists of sources with a 5-GHz flux density of 25-50 mJy, making it the faintest flat-spectrum radio sample for which the redshift distribution has been studied. The spectra, obtained with the Willam Herschel Telescope (WHT), consist mainly of broad-line quasars at z>1z>1 and narrow-line galaxies at z<0.5z<0.5. Though the mean redshift of flat-spectrum radio sources exhibits little variation over more than two orders of magnitude in radio flux density, there is evidence for a decreasing fraction of quasars at weaker flux levels. In this paper we present the results of our spectroscopic observations, and discuss the implications for constraining cosmological parameters with statistical analyses of the CLASS survey.Comment: 10 pages, AJ accepte
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