28 research outputs found

    David Hume i Adam Smith o sympatii

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    This article compares the two concepts of sympathy created by David Hume and Adam Smith. Although the notion plays a central role in both philosophical systems, its meaning is slightly different. Hume's detailed epistemological analyzes make it possible to distinguish three planes of description in his philosophy: common-sense, mechanistic and phenomenalistic, with sympathy playing a different role in each of them. Smith saw the central importance of this concept in Hume's concept of mind and sentiments and adopted it in his theory of moral feelings, but lacks a subtle analysis of the "mechanics" of human thought. This deficiency, however, can be treated both as neglect. However, on the other hand - paradoxically - it allows us to perceive the doctrinaire character of Hume's concept resulting from the adoption of a physicalist model of the explication of human affectivity.Artyku┼é zawiera por├│wnanie dw├│ch koncepcji sympatii, autorstwa Davida HumeÔÇÖa i Adama Smitha. Chocia┼╝ w obu systemach filozoficznych poj─Öcie tope┼éni centraln─ů rol─Ö, jej znaczenie jest nieco inne. Drobiazgowe analizy teoriopoznawcze HumeÔÇÖa pozwalaj─ů  na wyodr─Öbnienie w jego filozofii trzech p┼éaszczyzn opisu: zdroworozs─ůdkowy, mechanicystyczny i fenomenalistyczny, przy czym sympatia pe┼éni na ka┼╝dej z nich nieco odmienn─ů rol─Ö. Smith dostrzeg┼é centralne znaczenie tego poj─Öcia w HumeÔÇÖowskiej koncepcji umys┼éu i uczu─ç, a tak┼╝e zaadoptowa┼é je w swej teorii uczu─ç moralnych, ale brak u niego subtelnych analiz ÔÇ×mechanikiÔÇŁ ludzkiego my┼Ťlenia. Brak ten jednak mo┼╝na traktowa─ç zar├│wno jako zaniedbanie, jednak z drugiej strony ÔÇô paradoksalnie ÔÇô pozwala on dostrzec doktrynerski charakter koncepcji HumeÔÇÖa wynikaj─ůcy z przyj─Öcia fizykalistycznego modelu eksplikacji ludzkiej afektywno┼Ťci.       &nbsp

    Trendsetters and imagination: Adam SmithÔÇÖs views on change in Fashion

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    This paper presents a reconstruction and interpretation of the process of change in Adam SmithÔÇÖs philosophy basing on the example of changes in fashion. I shall focus on the role of imagination, as well as on the role of the wealthy in the process. I shall analyse how sympathy, respect and cognitive errors result in looking up to and mimicking the great. Something introduced by a small number of people becomes fashionable, as others follow. However, the processes of change will be regarded as an effect of individual behaviour and decisions that affect the society.Il presente saggio presenta una ricostruzione e una interpretazione del processo di modifica della filosofia di Adam Smith, basandosi sull'esempio del cambiamento della moda. Mi concentrero╠Ç sul ruolo dell'immaginazione, cosi╠Ç come sul ruolo della ricchezza nel processo, per poi analizzare come la simpatia, il rispetto e gli errori cognitivi portano a guardare e imitare i "grandi". Se qualcosa introdotto da un piccolo numero di persone diventa di moda, gli altri seguono. Tuttavia, i processi di cambiamento saranno considerati come un effetto del comportamento individuale e delle decisioni che influenzano la societa╠Ç

    Krytyka instytucji w Listach o sympatii Sophie de Grouchy

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    The paper reconstructs and analyses Sophie de GrouchyÔÇÖs views on social institutions, which, according to her, when functioning bad, are responsible for the unjust actions of humans. De Grouchy begins with presenting her views on sympathy, and subsequently, through the issue of the natural human tendency to do good, brings the reader to her critique of laws and institutions. She lists four main motivators that incline people to act wrongly, and she shows that within the frames of social institutions and laws, they overweigh the natural tendency to do good. De Grouchy also suggests the need for social reform.Artyku┼é rekonstruuje i analizuje pogl─ůdy Sophie de Grouchy na temat instytucji spo┼éecznych, kt├│re, zdaniem my┼Ťlicielki, gdy ┼║le funkcjonuj─ů, odpowiadaj─ů za niesprawiedliwe dzia┼éania ludzi. De Grouchy rozpoczyna od przedstawienia swojej teorii sympatii, a nast─Öpnie poprzez kwesti─Ö naturalnych sk┼éonno┼Ťci ludzkich do czynienia dobra prowadzi do krytyki praw i instytucji. Wyr├│┼╝nia cztery podstawowe czynniki sk┼éaniaj─ůce ludzi do pope┼éniania niesprawiedliwych czyn├│w i pokazuje, ┼╝e w ramach instytucji spo┼éecznych i obowi─ůzuj─ůcych praw przewa┼╝aj─ů one nad naturaln─ů ludzk─ů sk┼éonno┼Ťci─ů czynienia dobra. De Grouchy czyni tak┼╝e sugestie dotycz─ůce reformy spo┼éecznej

    O podstawach moralno┼Ťci w filozofii Sophie de Grouchy

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    Sophie de Grouchy in her Letters on sympathy analyses the notion of sympathy, as a starting point using a critique of Adam SmithÔÇÖs Theory of Moral Sentiments. She also points out that sympathising with other peopleÔÇÖs joys brings us pleasure, other peopleÔÇÖs good experiences make us happy (especially if we are the ones who contribute to their well-being) and we want to see other people happy and not suffering. As she assumes, we naturally seek other peopleÔÇÖs well-being and not their harm. De Grouchy underlines the role of imagination and reason, discerning coincidental good deeds and those that are an effect of intended actions. The paper aims to reconstruct a way in which de Grouchy seeks the grounds for morality in sympathy that is based on feeling and observation of physical pain and pleasure. This presentation of her theory that Polish readers are not closely accustomed with is a good starting point to inquire whether the argumentation presented by the author of the Letters on sympathy is coherent within her theory and whether it has proper justification

    Adam Smith and Sophie de Grouchy on Education

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    The paper analyses Adam SmithÔÇÖs and Sophie de GrouchyÔÇÖs views concerning education. It addresses both the issues of formal education in institutions for instruction as well as it mentions an informal transfer of values within the family and the society. The brief characteristic of the notions of sympathy and an impartial spectator precedes the discussion of the goals education should serve. It is an individualÔÇÖs development that is the core issue of the thinkersÔÇÖ considerations. The benefits for the society, at least in SmithÔÇÖs case, are important, yet subordinate. Both of the philosophers presented a critique of existing educational institutions. SmithÔÇÖs views on ways of financing universities and schools are also summarized in the paper. Moreover, a discussion on the issues of educating children and adults is presented, mentioning the importance of universal access to knowledge. It is the idea that people need to achieve the ability to think critically and not to learn the rules (also those of morality) by heart that marks the significance of SmithÔÇÖs and de GrouchyÔÇÖs philosophy of education.The paper analyses Adam SmithÔÇÖs and Sophie de GrouchyÔÇÖs views concerning education. It addresses both the issues of formal education in institutions for instruction as well as it mentions an informal transfer of values within the family and the society. The brief characteristic of the notions of sympathy and an impartial spectator precedes the discussion of the goals education should serve. It is an individualÔÇÖs development that is the core issue of the thinkersÔÇÖ considerations. The benefits for the society, at least in SmithÔÇÖs case, are important, yet subordinate. Both of the philosophers presented a critique of existing educational institutions. SmithÔÇÖs views on ways of financing universities and schools are also summarized in the paper. Moreover, a discussion on the issues of educating children and adults is presented, mentioning the importance of universal access to knowledge. It is the idea that people need to achieve the ability to think critically and not to learn the rules (also those of morality) by heart that marks the significance of SmithÔÇÖs and de GrouchyÔÇÖs philosophy of education

    Sophie de Grouchy: filozofia oparta na polemice

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    Sophie de Grouchy ├╝bersetzte Theorie der ethischen Gef├╝hle von Adam Smith ins Franz├Âsische. Sie f├╝gte ihrer ├ťbersetzung Lettres sur la Sympathie bei, in denen sie auf den grunds├Ątzlichen Mangel im Werk von Smith hingewiesen hatte: die mangelnde Erkl├Ąrung der Quelle der Sympathie. Ihre Lettres legen nicht nur die Anschauungen der Denkerin im Hinblick auf diese Frage dar, sie enthalten auch ihre ├ťberlegungen zum Thema der Sympathie, die Institutionskritik usw. Der Artikel setzt sich zum Ziel, die Denkerin de Grouchy darzustellen, ihre Theorie der Sympathie zu charakterisieren und nachzuweisen, dass Lettres nicht nur ein Kommentar zu Theorie von Smith sind, sondern auch entgegengesetzte philosophische Anschauungen enthalten.The article portrays Sophie de Grouchy (1764-1822) who translated Adam SmithÔÇÖs Theory of Moral Sentiments into French adding eight letters, Lettres sur la Sympathie, with her own comments on his work. The Lettres┬áengage critically with Smith's philosophical analysis of sympathy. They also present her criticism of institutions and views on other matters including philosophy. The latter are in many instances in variance with those preached by Smith.Sophie de Grouchy by┼éa t┼éumaczk─ů Teorii uczu─ç moralnych Adama Smitha na j─Özyk francuski. Do swego przek┼éadu do┼é─ůczy┼éa Listy o sympatii, w kt├│rych zwr├│ci┼éa uwag─Ö na podstawowy jej zdaniem brak w dziele Smitha: niewyja┼Ťnienie ┼║r├│de┼é sympatii. Jej Listy nie tylko przedstawiaj─ů pogl─ůdy my┼Ťlicielki na t─Ö kwesti─Ö, lecz tak┼╝e zawieraj─ů jej rozwa┼╝ania na temat sympatii, krytyk─Ö instytucji itp. Artyku┼é ma na celu przedstawienie sylwetki de Grouchy, scharakteryzowanie jej teorii sympatii oraz wskazanie, i┼╝ Listy nie s─ů jedynie komentarzem do Teorii Smitha, lecz zawieraj─ů pogl─ůdy filozoficzne cz─Östo rozbie┼╝ne z tymi, kt├│re prezentowa┼é Szkot

    Teoria czterech stadi├│w rozwoju spo┼éecze┼ästw w my┼Ťli Adama Smitha

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    Adam Smith on Institutions for Instruction

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    Adam Smith o instytucjach s┼éu┼╝─ůcych kszta┼éceniu Chocia┼╝ uwagi Adama Smitha dotycz─ůce edukacji i instytucji jej s┼éu┼╝─ůcych nie zajmuj─ů wiele miejsca w jego dzie┼éach, to jednak s─ů mocno zakorzenione w jego teorii. Filozof krytykowa┼é sta┼ée pensje nauczycieli, przyjmuj─ůc, ┼╝e wsp├│┼ézawodnictwo pomi─Ödzy nimi wymusi na nich przygotowywanie interesuj─ůcych i po┼╝ytecznych zaj─Ö─ç. By┼é zwolennikiem rywalizacji mi─Ödzy uniwersytetami i pochlebnie wyra┼╝a┼é si─Ö o prywatnych nauczycielach. Obstawa┼é jednak zarazem przy wsp├│┼éfinansowaniu edukacji przez pa┼ästwo, poniewa┼╝ powszechna nauka dzieci i mo┼╝liwo┼Ť─ç zaj─Öcia umys┼éu przez robotnik├│w s─ů korzystne nie tylko dla pojedynczych ludzi, ale te┼╝ dla pa┼ästwa.Adam SmithÔÇÖs remarks concerning education and its institutions, though they occupy no significant place in his works, are, in fact, deeply grounded in his theory. The philosopher criticized teachersÔÇÖ fixed salaries assuming that it competition┬á among them would encourage them to prepare interesting and useful classes. He was in favour of competition among universities and wrote favourably of private teachers. At the same time, he argued in favour of co-financing education by the state, as universal education for children and possibility to keep workersÔÇÖ minds active are not only beneficial to individuals, but also to the state

    Adam Smith o instynktach i pop─Ödach

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    The paper is aiming to present and analyse the notions used by Adam Smith: ÔÇśinstinctÔÇÖ and ÔÇśappetitesÔÇÖ. They appear in two of the Scottish philosopherÔÇÖs works: in ÔÇśThe Theory of Moral SentimentsÔÇÖ and in an essay ÔÇśOf the External SensesÔÇÖ. Smith noticed that there are certain inborn mechanisms that suggest the existence of crucial needs and means leading to satisfy those needs. That concerns, mostly, hunger and thirst, but also sex drive (authorÔÇÖs remarks concerning that issue turn out to be quite innovative). He regarded the need of self-preservation and of caring for oneÔÇÖs own well-being as crucial for a manÔÇÖs behaviour (Smith thought that the drive towards self-destruction is unhealthy, he considered it rather as the effect of melancholy). The essay ÔÇśOf the External SensesÔÇÖ mentions instinctive correlation of the objects of sight with the objects of touch as crucial for the human survival, basing on George BerkeleyÔÇÖs theory of vision. SmithÔÇÖs remarks on appetites give a new perspective on how the mechanisms given us by Nature influence moral and social individuals, at the same time completing the philosopherÔÇÖs theory. The need to care for self ÔÇÖs prosperity and survival can be regarded not only as an instinct, but also as actions leading to realisation of the virtue of prudence. Moreover, we learn how to fulfil our instinctive needs and appetites within the society, searching for acceptable means. In the paper SmithÔÇÖs view of instincts and appetites is also being briefly confronted with David HumeÔÇÖs and Thomas HobbesÔÇÖ remarks on the subject.Artyku┼é charakteryzuje i┬áanalizuje poj─Öcia instynkt i pop─Ödy u┼╝ywane przez Adama Smitha. Pojawiaj─ů si─Ö one przede wszystkim w┬ádw├│ch pracach filozofia: Teorii uczu─ç moralnych oraz w┬áeseju Of the External Senses po┼Ťwi─Öconym zmys┼éom zewn─Ötrznym. Smith dostrzega┼é, ┼╝e istniej─ů wrodzone mechanizmy sugeruj─ůce istnienie podstawowych potrzeb oraz wskazuj─ůce ┼Ťrodki prowadz─ůce do zaspokojenia tych┼╝e potrzeb. Uwagi te dotyczy┼éy nie tylko g┼éodu i┬ápragnienia, lecz tak┼╝e, np.: pop─Ödu seksualnego (spostrze┼╝enia autora na ten temat zdaj─ů si─Ö wyprzedza─ç epok─Ö). Uznawa┼é potrzeb─Ö samozachowania i┬átrosk─Ö o┬áw┼éasne dobro za kluczowe motywatory dzia┼éa┼ä cz┼éowieka (Smith uwa┼╝a┼é, ┼╝e d─ů┼╝enie do samozniszczenia jest niezdrowe i┬áuznawa┼é je za efekt melancholii). Esej Of the External Senses podnosi kwesti─Ö instynktownego korelowania przedmiot├│w wzroku z┬áprzedmiotami dotyku, uznaj─ůc t─Ö umiej─Ötno┼Ť─ç za istotn─ů dla przetrwania cz┼éowieka. W┬átek┼Ťcie tym filozof odwo┼éywa┼é si─Ö do teorii widzenia zaproponowanej przez GeorgeÔÇÖa Berkeleya. Uwagi po┼Ťwi─Öcone pop─Ödom rzucaj─ů nowe ┼Ťwiat┼éo na to, w┬ájaki spos├│b wrodzone zdolno┼Ťci dane nam przez Natur─Ö wp┼éywaj─ů na jednostki moralne i┬áspo┼éeczne, stanowi─ů zatem uzupe┼énienie teorii Smitha. Potrzeba dbania o┬áw┼éasny dobrobyt i┬áprzetrwanie mo┼╝e by─ç postrzegana nie tylko jako instynkt, lecz tak┼╝e jako spos├│b realizowania cnoty roztropno┼Ťci. Nale┼╝y zauwa┼╝y─ç, ┼╝e uczymy si─Ö jak zaspokaja─ç nasze instynktowne potrzeby w┬áramach akceptowalnych spo┼éecznie norm. W┬átek┼Ťcie pogl─ůdy Smitha s─ů kr├│tko zestawione z┬áteori─ů Davida HumeÔÇÖa i┬áThomasa Hobbesa
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