38 research outputs found

    Microcosm experiment.

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    <p><i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> load after 4 weeks inoculated in sand, sandy clay loam or clay with treatments in triplicate consisting of eight different fertilizers (Tables <a href="http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003635#pntd.0003635.t002" target="_blank">2</a> and <a href="http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003635#pntd.0003635.t003" target="_blank">3</a>), a water-only treatment and a control with no change. The y-axes are in log scale (+0.001) and represent the normalized <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> load with the ratio of TTS1 copy number over pt7 control plasmid numbers.</p

    Microcosm experiment treatments.

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    <p>Nine treatments used (plus control) which were each applied in triplicate to each soil type. Fertilizers were applied as per manufacturer’s instructions. All treatments were added with the same amount of water. Ingredients are listed based on package labelling. Numbers indicate % w/w.</p><p>* organic matter 61.5%, organic carbon 35.7%</p><p>** water added to increase VSW of soil by 20%</p><p>Microcosm experiment treatments.</p

    Longitudinal occurrence of <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> (red line) on the experimental field site.

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    <p>The vertical blue lines indicate the start and end of the wet seasons. The y axis depicts the <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> occurrence at total four holes per duplicate quadrants. The first measure was taken before treatments were applied.</p

    Heat maps for the mean <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> occurrence per quadrant for the dry and wet season; mean soil moisture (β€œ0” dry (<4% vsw), β€œ1” moist (4–20% vsw), β€œ2” wet (>20% vsw)), mean pH and mean electrical conductivity EC, i.e. soil salinity (ΞΌS/cm).

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    <p>Heat maps for the mean <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> occurrence per quadrant for the dry and wet season; mean soil moisture (β€œ0” dry (<4% vsw), β€œ1” moist (4–20% vsw), β€œ2” wet (>20% vsw)), mean pH and mean electrical conductivity EC, i.e. soil salinity (ΞΌS/cm).</p

    The experimental field site.

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    <p>The setup consisted of two plots with six quadrants each (1x1 metre) with type of treatments or control indicated. Soil of two holes per quadrant (different holes for each round) was tested for <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> on a quarterly basis approximately. The arrow marks the direction of the water run-off in the wet season. The number indicates the <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> occurrence with the subscript number referring to the baseline occurrence before start of treatment (total 2 holes tested per quadrant) followed by the number of <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> positive holes during treatment (total 26 holes tested per quadrant for the duration of the experiment).</p

    Results of the analysis on the occurrence of <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> on the experimental field site.

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    <p>The odds ratio refers to the ratio of the odds of <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> occurring in soil samples taken a year or more into the experiment from the treatment quadrants to the odds of <i>B</i>. <i>pseudomallei</i> occurring in soil samples from the control quadrants.</p

    Demographic and clinical characteristics of 96 patients randomized to treatment of Azithromycin (nβ€Š=β€Š50) or placebo (nβ€Š=β€Š46) and by ethnicity.

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    <p><b>Median and IQR (25–75) for continuous variables. Actual numbers for categorical variables and percentages.</b></p><p><b>NB</b>: Missing variables described.</p><p><b>Azithromycin</b>: Gestational age β€Š=β€Š3 (6%). Birth weight β€Š=β€Š6 (12%). Mother smoked during pregnancy β€Š=β€Š3 (6%). Exposure to household smoke β€Š=β€Š2 (4%), <b>Placebo</b>: Gestational age: β€Š=β€Š2 (4%). Birth weight β€Š=β€Š3 (6.5%).</p><p><b>Indigenous children</b>: Gestational age β€Š=β€Š2 (3.3%). Birth weight β€Š=β€Š4 (6.5%). Mother smoked during pregnancy β€Š=β€Š2 (3%). Exposure to household smoke β€Š=β€Š1 (1.6%): <b>Non Indigenous children</b>: Gestational age: β€Š=β€Š3 (8.6%). Birth weight β€Š=β€Š5 (14.3%) Mother smoked during pregnancy β€Š=β€Š1 (3%). Exposure to household smoke β€Š=β€Š1 (3%).</p
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