2,743 research outputs found

    Improving U.S. Housing Finance Through Reform of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: Assessing the Options

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    Presents criteria for evaluating proposals for reforming the two government-sponsored enterprises. Outlines the key arguments for their structural strengths and weaknesses, a framework and goals for reform, and features of specific proposals to date

    Mensurative Approach to Examine Potential Interactions Between Age-0 Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

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    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) andyellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations are often sympatric in the Great Plains region of the U.S.A. and portions of Canada; however, very little attention has been given to potential interactions between these species for available resources, especially during the early life stages. Relationships between age-0 bluegill and yellow perch growth and relative abundance were explored across multiple lakes and years within the Nebraska Sandhill region, USA. In addition, four habitat patch types (open water, Phragmites spp., Typha spp., Scirpus spp.) were sampled for age-0 bluegill and yellow perch, and food habits were examined for each species during August, September, and October of 2009 in one of these lakes. Age-0 yellow perch growth was negatively related to age-0 bluegill relative abundance across a spatiotemporal scale. Age-0 bluegill and yellow perch exhibited similar habitat use (moderate–high overlap), but generally consumed different important and dominant prey taxa (bluegill consumed both macroinvertebrates— 56 % and zooplankton—44 %, while yellow perch consumed more zooplankton—66 %), which resulted in low overall diet overlap between species. Previous research indicates that age-0 yellow perch diet ontogeny often results in feeding predominately on macroinvertebrates and positively selecting them (and avoiding zooplankton prey) at sizes observed in our study. Therefore, yellow perch growth rates may be compromised by the presence of bluegill because of the need to consume less energetically profitable prey items such as zooplankton

    Mensurative Approach to Examine Potential Interactions Between Age-0 Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    Get PDF
    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) andyellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations are often sympatric in the Great Plains region of the U.S.A. and portions of Canada; however, very little attention has been given to potential interactions between these species for available resources, especially during the early life stages. Relationships between age-0 bluegill and yellow perch growth and relative abundance were explored across multiple lakes and years within the Nebraska Sandhill region, USA. In addition, four habitat patch types (open water, Phragmites spp., Typha spp., Scirpus spp.) were sampled for age-0 bluegill and yellow perch, and food habits were examined for each species during August, September, and October of 2009 in one of these lakes. Age-0 yellow perch growth was negatively related to age-0 bluegill relative abundance across a spatiotemporal scale. Age-0 bluegill and yellow perch exhibited similar habitat use (moderate–high overlap), but generally consumed different important and dominant prey taxa (bluegill consumed both macroinvertebrates— 56 % and zooplankton—44 %, while yellow perch consumed more zooplankton—66 %), which resulted in low overall diet overlap between species. Previous research indicates that age-0 yellow perch diet ontogeny often results in feeding predominately on macroinvertebrates and positively selecting them (and avoiding zooplankton prey) at sizes observed in our study. Therefore, yellow perch growth rates may be compromised by the presence of bluegill because of the need to consume less energetically profitable prey items such as zooplankton

    Biological Investigation of Wing Motion of the Manduca Sexta

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    An investigation was conducted assessing the feasibility of reproducing the biological flapping motion of the wings of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta (M.sexta) by artificially stimulating the flight muscles for Micro Air Vehicle research. Electromyographical signals were collected using bipolar intramuscular fine wire electrodes inserted into the primary flight muscles, the dorsal longitudinal and dorsal ventral muscles, of the adult M.sexta. These signals were recorded and associated with wing movement using high speed video. The signals were reapplied into the corresponding muscle groups with the intention of reproducing similar flapping motion. A series of impulse signals were also directed into the primary flight muscles as a means of observing muscle response through measured forewing angles. This study pioneered electromyographic research on M.sexta at the Air Force Institute of Technology with tests conducted with fine wire electrodes. Through this process, the research showed the deformational structural changes that take place when a wing is removed from an insect and proved that muscular stimulation is a viable method for generating wing movement. This study also assisted in developing an understanding related to the role that a thorax-like fuselage could play in future micro aircraft designs. This study has shown that partial neuromuscular control of the primary flight muscles of M.sexta is possible with electrical stimulants which could be used to directly control insect flight

    Temperature, Hatch Date, and Prey Availability Influence Age-0 Yellow Perch Growth and Survival

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    Throughout their range, Yellow Perch Perca flavescens are an important ecological and economic component of many fisheries, but they often exhibit highly variable recruitment. Much research effort has been devoted to better understanding the mechanisms responsible for these erratic recruitment patterns, yet few studies have examined this process at the detail necessary to reveal complex interactions that may exist across multiple early life stages. Our current understanding of the early life recruitment patterns of Yellow Perch suggests a strong abiotic component. Using existing information, we developed three working hypotheses to examine Yellow Perch recruitment at two larval stages (5–14 and 15–24 d old) and to further identify the overarching mechanisms (abiotic versus biotic) related to Yellow Perch recruitment in 332-ha Pelican Lake, Nebraska, during 2004–2012. Larval Yellow Perch growth and mortality were largely regulated by hatching date, temperature, and zooplankton availability. The growth of young larval Yellow Perch (5–14 d old) was positively related to temperature and hatch date; that of old larval perch (15–24 d old) was positively related to water temperature and postlarval age-0 (≤25 mm TL) Yellow Perch density but negatively related to the available preferred zooplankton biomass. Mortality was inversely related to total zooplankton biomass and water temperature. Our results describe a model with two potential Yellow Perch recruitment bottlenecks, one immediately posthatch that is regulated by hatch date and temperature and another during the older larval stage that is regulated by temperature and zooplankton

    Temperature, Hatch Date, and Prey Availability Influence Age-0 Yellow Perch Growth and Survival

    Get PDF
    Throughout their range, Yellow Perch Perca flavescens are an important ecological and economic component of many fisheries, but they often exhibit highly variable recruitment. Much research effort has been devoted to better understanding the mechanisms responsible for these erratic recruitment patterns, yet few studies have examined this process at the detail necessary to reveal complex interactions that may exist across multiple early life stages. Our current understanding of the early life recruitment patterns of Yellow Perch suggests a strong abiotic component. Using existing information, we developed three working hypotheses to examine Yellow Perch recruitment at two larval stages (5–14 and 15–24 d old) and to further identify the overarching mechanisms (abiotic versus biotic) related to Yellow Perch recruitment in 332-ha Pelican Lake, Nebraska, during 2004–2012. Larval Yellow Perch growth and mortality were largely regulated by hatching date, temperature, and zooplankton availability. The growth of young larval Yellow Perch (5–14 d old) was positively related to temperature and hatch date; that of old larval perch (15–24 d old) was positively related to water temperature and postlarval age-0 (≤25 mm TL) Yellow Perch density but negatively related to the available preferred zooplankton biomass. Mortality was inversely related to total zooplankton biomass and water temperature. Our results describe a model with two potential Yellow Perch recruitment bottlenecks, one immediately posthatch that is regulated by hatch date and temperature and another during the older larval stage that is regulated by temperature and zooplankton

    Global inequities and political borders challenge nature conservation under climate change

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    Underlying sociopolitical factors have emerged as important determinants of wildlife population trends and the effectiveness of conservation action. Despite mounting research into the impacts of climate change on nature, there has been little consideration of the human context in which these impacts occur, particularly at the global scale. We investigate this in two ways. First, by modeling the climatic niches of terrestrial mammals and birds globally, we show that projected species loss under climate change is greatest in countries with weaker governance and lower Gross Domestic Product, with loss of mammal species projected to be greater in countries with lower CO2 emissions. Therefore, climate change impacts on species may be disproportionately significant in countries with lower capacity for effective conservation and lower greenhouse gas emissions, raising important questions of international justice. Second, we consider the redistribution of species in the context of political boundaries since the global importance of transboundary conservation under climate change is poorly understood. Under a high-emissions scenario, we find that 35% of mammals and 29% of birds are projected to have over half of their 2070 climatic niche in countries in which they are not currently found. We map these transboundary range shifts globally, identifying borders across which international coordination might most benefit conservation and where physical border barriers, such as walls and fences, may be an overlooked obstacle to climate adaptation. Our work highlights the importance of sociopolitical context and the utility of a supranational perspective for 21st century nature conservation

    Overwinter Mortality of Sympatric Juvenile Bluegill and Yellow Perch in Mid-Temperate Sandhill lakes, Nebraska, U.S.A

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    Substantial mortality can occur in age-0 fish populations during their first year of life, especially in winter; this can potentially influence overall recruitment into the adult population. As such, we compared relative abundances between fall and spring catches of sympatric juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque and yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill) to evaluate the magnitude of overwinter mortality across locations (five lakes for two years) and through time (one lake for six years). In addition, we compared both quantile-quantile and increment plots, based on length-frequency histograms from fall- and spring-caught cohorts from 2004 to 2010, to determine if mortality was sizeselective while accounting for over winter growth. Bluegill relative abundances (as indexed by catch-per-unit-effort) significantly decreased from fall to spring, although size-selective mortality was not detected in 10 instances. Yellow perch relative abundances were similar from fall to spring in five Nebraska Sandhill lakes; however, size-selective mortality was detected, with size-selective over winter mortality of smaller individuals occurring in one of eight instances, whereas greater mortality in larger individuals occurred in two instances. Positive growth occurred in both species but was variable among lakes and appeared to be system-specific. In Nebraska Sandhill lakes, over winter mortality likely differs between these two species in its severity, size-selective effect, and scale (i.e., lake-specific vs. large-scale processes), and is likely influenced by combinations of these (and potentially other) factors

    Priority Effects Among Young-of-the-year Fish: Reduced Growth of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Caused by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)?

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    1. When available, Daphnia spp. are often preferred by age-0 yellow perch and bluegill sunfish because of energetic profitability. We hypothesised that predation by age-0 yellow perch could lead to a midsummer decline (MSD) of Daphnia spp. and that priority effects may favour yellow perch because they hatch before bluegill, allowing them to capitalise on Daphnia spp. prior to bluegill emergence. 2. Data were collected from 2004 to 2010 in Pelican Lake, Nebraska, U.S.A. The lake experienced a prolonged MSD in all but 1 year (2005), generally occurring within the first 2 weeks of June except in 2008 and 2010 when it occurred at the end of June. MSD timing is not solely related to seasonal patterns of age-0 yellow perch consumption. Nevertheless, when Daphnia spp. biomass was low during 2004 and 2006–2010 (\u3c4 mg wet weight L)1), predation by age-0 yellow perch seems to have suppressed Daphnia spp. biomass (i.e. \u3c1.0 mg wet weight L)1). The exception was 2005 when age-0 yellow perch were absent. 3. Growth of age-0 bluegill was significantly faster in 2005, when Daphnia spp. were available in greater densities (\u3e4 mg wet weight L)1) compared with the other years (\u3c0.2 mg wet weight L)1). 4. We conclude that age-0 yellow perch are capable of reducing Daphnia biomass prior to the arrival of age-0 bluegill, ultimately slowing bluegill growth. Thus, priority effects favour age-0 yellow perch when competing with age-0 bluegill for Daphnia. However, these effects may be minimised if there is a shorter time between hatching of the two species, higher Daphnia spp. densities or lower age-0 yellow perch densities

    Priority Effects Among Young-of-the-Year Fish: Reduced Growth of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Caused by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)?

    Get PDF
    1. When available, Daphnia spp. are often preferred by age-0 yellow perch and bluegill sunfish because of energetic profitability. We hypothesised that predation by age-0 yellow perch could lead to a midsummer decline (MSD) of Daphnia spp. and that priority effects may favour yellow perch because they hatch before bluegill, allowing them to capitalise on Daphnia spp. prior to bluegill emergence. 2. Data were collected from 2004 to 2010 in Pelican Lake, Nebraska, U.S.A. The lake experienced a prolonged MSD in all but 1 year (2005), generally occurring within the first 2 weeks of June except in 2008 and 2010 when it occurred at the end of June. MSD timing is not solely related to seasonal patterns of age-0 yellow perch consumption. Nevertheless, when Daphnia spp. biomass was low during 2004 and 2006–2010 (\u3c4 mg wet weight L)1 ), predation by age-0 yellow perch seems to have suppressed Daphnia spp. biomass (i.e. \u3c1.0 mg wet weight L)1 ). The exception was 2005 when age-0 yellow perch were absent. 3. Growth of age-0 bluegill was significantly faster in 2005, when Daphnia spp. were available in greater densities (\u3e4 mg wet weight L)1 ) compared with the other years (\u3c0.2 mg wet weight L)1 ). 4. We conclude that age-0 yellow perch are capable of reducing Daphnia biomass prior to the arrival of age-0 bluegill, ultimately slowing bluegill growth. Thus, priority effects favour age-0 yellow perch when competing with age-0 bluegill for Daphnia. However, these effects may be minimised if there is a shorter time between hatching of the two species, higher Daphnia spp. densities or lower age-0 yellow perch densities
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