25 research outputs found

    The Place of 3D Printing in the Manufacturing and Operational Process Based on the Industry 4.0 Structure

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    The article presents the place of 3D printing in the manufacturing and operational process. It analyzes selected incremental technologies in the product life cycle. It describes selected processes for testing the properties of materials used in 3D printing, including accelerated aging tests and simulation of operating conditions. Areas of application of 3D printing were defined, starting from design and prototype development through manufacturing of technological tools and finally finished products. Design criteria of additivelymanufactured elements in relation to the exploitation process are discussed. A methodology for the development of 3D-CAD models of manufactured elements, software processing of data and data storage format for manufacturing products and spare parts is presented. The assumptions of repair procedures based on the production of spare parts by means of 3D printing in relation to data circulation compatible with the idea of Industry 4.0 structure have been adopted

    Wp┼éyw modyfikowanych bentonit├│w na proces sieciowania ┼╝ywicy epoksydowej amin─ů alifatyczn─ů

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    In this work the influence of modified bentonites on the process of epoxy crosslinking with triethylenetetramine (TETA) was investigated. Bentonites (BS) modified with quaternary phosphonium (QPS) and ammonium (QAS) salts were used as a nanofiller in the epoxy matrix (EP) in the amounts of 1 and 3 wt %. Gel time of the compositions was investigated using rotational rheometer at 30, 45 and 60 ┬░C and activation energies of the compositions were determined. The storage GÔÇÖ and loss GÔÇŁ moduli crossover criterion was used to determine the nanocomposites gel time variation. On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that the addition of modified aluminosilicates decreased the gel time of epoxy compositions at 30 and 45 ┬░C, while at 60 ┬░C it increased compared to unmodified epoxy resin. The obtained results indicate that the amount of modified aluminosilicate and the type of salt influence the reactivity of epoxy compositions. Among the tested systems, the most reactive was the composition of EP+3%BSQPS1, because the gel time at 30 ┬░C and activation energy decreased by 1500 s and 8 J/mol, respectively, in relation to the unfilled EP resin. A more catalytic effect was observed in the case of bentonites modified with quaternary phosphonium salts, which may be associated with lower phosphorus electronegativity in relation to nitrogen and a lower viscosity of these systems.Zbadano wp┼éyw dodatku modyfikowanych bentonit├│w na proces sieciowania epoksyd├│w za pomoc─ů trietylenotetraaminy (TETA). Bentonit (BS) modyfikowany czwartorz─Ödowymi solami fosfoniowymi (QPS) lub amoniowymi (QAS) u┼╝yto jako nanonape┼éniacz w osnowie epoksydowej (EP) w ilo┼Ťci 1 oraz 3 % mas. Za pomoc─ů reometru rotacyjnego zbadano czas ┼╝elowania kompozycji w temp. 30, 45 i 60 ┬░C, wyznaczono te┼╝ ich energie aktywacji. Punkt ┼╝elowania wyznacza┼éy przecinaj─ůce si─Ö krzywe modu┼é├│w zachowawczego GÔÇÖ i stratno┼Ťci GÔÇŁ. Na podstawie uzyskanych wynik├│w stwierdzono, ┼╝e dodatek do ┼╝ywicy epoksydowej modyfikowanych glinokrzemian├│w spowodowa┼é skr├│cenie czasu ┼╝elowania kompozycji w temp. 30 i 45 ┬░C, natomiast w temp. 60 ┬░C nast─ůpi┼éo jego wyd┼éu┼╝enie w stosunku do czasu ┼╝elowania niemodyfikowanej ┼╝ywicy epoksydowej. Uzyskane wyniki wskazuj─ů, ┼╝e zar├│wno ilo┼Ť─ç dodanego modyfikowanego glinokrzemianu, jak i rodzaj soli u┼╝ytej do modyfikacji wp┼éywaj─ů na reaktywno┼Ť─ç wytworzonych kompozycji epoksydowych. Spo┼Ťr├│d badanych uk┼éad├│w najwi─Öksz─ů reaktywno┼Ť─ç wykazywa┼éa kompozycja EP+3%BSQPS1; czas ┼╝elowania w 30 ┬░C i energia aktywacji zmniejszy┼éy si─Ö, odpowiednio, o 1500 s i 8 J/mol w stosunku do warto┼Ťci odpowiadaj─ůcych nienape┼énionej ┼╝ywicy EP. Wi─Ökszy katalityczny efekt zaobserwowano w wypadku bentonit├│w modyfikowanych solami fosfoniowymi, co mo┼╝e wynika─ç z mniejszej elektroujemno┼Ťci fosforu ni┼╝ azotu

    Analiza w┼éa┼Ťciwo┼Ťci mechanicznych oraz rozk┼éadu odkszta┼éce┼ä w trakcie ┼Ťcinania kompozyt├│w polimerowo-w┼é├│knistych z dodatkiem uniepalniaczy

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    The work examined the effect of flame retardant addition to the epoxy resin powder matrix on the mechanical properties of composites reinforced with biaxal glass fabric. Two flame retardant systems were used to modify the epoxy resin: (1) melamine polyphosphate (MPP) and aluminum diethyl phosphinate (AlDPi); (2) ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and dipentaerythritol (DPE). The flame retardant content was 25 wt %. In addition, individual compositions also contained 15 wt % of zinc borate (ZB). Tensile, bending and shear tests for the obtained composites were performed. Furthermore, using the digital image correlation method, an analysis of local strains on the sample surface during shear test was carried out. The obtained results indicate, that the amount and type of flame retardant affects the mechanical properties of the composites. Among the tested systems, the best results were obtained for a composite containing 18 wt % ammonium polyphosphate and 7 wt % dipentaerythritol. Compared to the reference sample, among others, the shear stress and shear modulus increased by 25.0 and 39.7%, respectively. In turn, a clear deterioration of the tested parameters was observed in the case of a composite with a matrix containing 15 wt % of AlDPi, 10 wt % of MPP and 15 wt % of ZB, because, compared to unmodified composite, the flexural, tensile and shear stress were reduced by 50.9, 53.5 and 34.8%, respectively.Zbadano wp┼éyw dodatku uniepalniaczy: (1) poli(fosforanu melaminy) (MPP) i dietylofosfinianu glinu (AlDPi); (2) polifosforanu amonu (APP) i dipentaerytrytolu (DPE), o sumarycznym udziale w kompozycie 25% mas., na w┼éa┼Ťciwo┼Ťci mechaniczne kompozyt├│w na osnowie proszkowej ┼╝ywicy epoksydowej wzmocnionych biaxialn─ů tkanin─ů szklan─ů. Poszczeg├│lne kompozycje zawiera┼éy dodatkowo 15% mas. boranu cynku (ZB). Oceniono wytrzyma┼éo┼Ť─ç na rozci─ůganie, zginanie i ┼Ťcinanie otrzymanych kompozyt├│w. Z wykorzystaniem metody cyfrowej korelacji obrazu przeprowadzono te┼╝ analiz─Ö odkszta┼éce┼ä lokalnych na powierzchni pr├│bek kompozyt├│w w trakcie ┼Ťcinania. Uzyskane wyniki wskazuj─ů, ┼╝e zar├│wno ilo┼Ť─ç, jak i rodzaj dodanego uniepalniacza wp┼éywaj─ů na w┼éa┼Ťciwo┼Ťci mechaniczne kompozyt├│w. Spo┼Ťr├│d zbadanych uk┼éad├│w najlepsze wyniki wykazywa┼é kompozyt zawieraj─ůcy 18% mas. polifosforanu amonu i 7% mas. dipentaerytrytolu. Stwierdzono, ┼╝e, w por├│wnaniu z pr├│bk─ů referencyjn─ů, m.in. wytrzyma┼éo┼Ť─ç na ┼Ťcinanie oraz modu┼é ┼Ťcinania zwi─Ökszy┼éy si─Ö o, odpowiednio, 25 i 39,7%. Zaobserwowano natomiast wyra┼║ne pogorszenie badanych parametr├│w w wypadku kompozytu z osnow─ů zawieraj─ůc─ů 15% mas. AlDPi, 10% MPP oraz 15% ZB, gdy┼╝, w odniesieniu do kompozytu z niemodyfikowan─ů osnow─ů, napr─Ö┼╝enia zginaj─ůce, rozci─ůgaj─ůce i ┼Ťcinaj─ůce zmniejszy┼éy si─Ö o, odpowiednio, 50,9; 53,5; i 34,8%

    Properties of Elasto-Hydrodynamic Oil Film in Meshing of Harmonic Drive Gears

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    Among the essential issues facing designers of strain wave gears, the provision for correct lubrication should be of paramount importance. The present paper presents the results of research on elasto-hydrodynamic oil film in meshing of a harmonic drive with an involute tooth profile. The research was carried out based on theoretical models developed by Dowson and Higginson. For the discussed structural problem, results of the study are presented graphically in the form of static characteristics of the oil film. Correct operation regimes were determined for two different oils. The paper also provides a review of information concerning the design and principle of operation of strain wave transmission

    Properties of Elasto-Hydrodynamic Oil Film in Meshing of Harmonic Drive Gears

    No full text
    Among the essential issues facing designers of strain wave gears, the provision for correct lubrication should be of paramount importance. The present paper presents the results of research on elasto-hydrodynamic oil film in meshing of a harmonic drive with an involute tooth profile. The research was carried out based on theoretical models developed by Dowson and Higginson. For the discussed structural problem, results of the study are presented graphically in the form of static characteristics of the oil film. Correct operation regimes were determined for two different oils. The paper also provides a review of information concerning the design and principle of operation of strain wave transmission
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