16 research outputs found

    Prevention of Hypovolemic Circulatory Collapse by IL-6 Activated Stat3

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    Half of trauma deaths are attributable to hypovolemic circulatory collapse (HCC). We established a model of HCC in rats involving minor trauma plus severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). HCC in this model was accompanied by a 50% reduction in peak acceleration of aortic blood flow and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HCC and apoptosis increased with increasing duration of hypotension. Apoptosis required resuscitation, which provided an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. Administration of IL-6 completely reversed HCC, prevented cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced mortality 5-fold and activated intracardiac signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Pre-treatment of rats with a selective inhibitor of Stat3, T40214, reduced the IL-6-mediated increase in cardiac Stat3 activity, blocked successful resuscitation by IL-6 and reversed IL-6-mediated protection from cardiac apoptosis. The hearts of mice deficient in the naturally occurring dominant negative isoform of Stat3, Stat3β, were completely resistant to HS-induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis of hearts focusing on apoptosis related genes revealed that expression of 29% of apoptosis related genes was altered in HS vs. sham rats. IL-6 treatment normalized the expression of these genes, while T40214 pretreatment prevented IL-6-mediated normalization. Thus, cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes are important components of HCC; IL-6 administration prevented HCC by blocking cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes via Stat3 and warrants further study as a resuscitation adjuvant for prevention of HCC and death in trauma patients

    IL-6 knockout mice

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    Essential Role of STAT3 in the Control of the Acute-Phase Response as Revealed by Inducible Gene Inactivation in the Liver

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    We generated mice carrying a STAT3 allele amenable to Cre-mediated deletion and intercrossed them with R-lx-Cre transgenic mice, in which the expression of Cre recombinase can be induced by type I interferon. Interferon-induced deletion of STAT3 occurred very efficiently (more than 90%) in the liver and slightly less efficiently (about 70%) in the bone marrow. Analysis of the induction of liver acute-phase genes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide unequivocally identifies STAT3 as a fundamental mediator of their induction. The different degrees of defectiveness displayed by the various genes allowed us to differentiate them into three separate groups according to their degree of dependence on STAT3. Induction was totally defective for group I genes, defective at 24 h but almost normal at earlier time points for group II. genes, and only slightly defective for group III genes. This division was in good agreement with the known structures of the respective promoters. We also found that the overall induction of the transcription factors C/EBP beta and -delta was only minimally defective in the absence of STAT3. Finally, even though corticosterone levels and action were found to be normal in the conditional-mutant mice, production of both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines was increased and prolonged, probably as a result of STAT3 deletion in macrophages