12 research outputs found

    Dynamique de la conductance hydraulique chez l'olivier de table (Olea europaea L., cv Meski)

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    Hydraulic Conductance Dynamic in Olive Table Tree (Olea europaea L. cv Meski). Cette Ă©tude expose les effets de l'amĂ©nagement des pĂąturages par la digue filtrante sur la dynamique de la vĂ©gĂ©tation. Dans les rĂ©gions sahĂ©liennes, de nombreuses techniques sont appliquĂ©es sur les sols pour la restauration des parcours dĂ©gradĂ©s. La digue filtrante s'intĂ©resse particuliĂšrement aux axes de drainage ou bas-fonds en dĂ©gradation. La mĂ©thode d'Ă©tude a consistĂ© Ă  Ă©valuer l'impact des digues filtrantes par l'inventaire de la vĂ©gĂ©tation, la mesure de la biomasse produite, et l'analyse chimique d'Ă©chantillons de fourrage et de sol. Ces observations ont Ă©tĂ© faites Ă  la fois sur l'espace amĂ©nagĂ© et sur un espace tĂ©moin reprĂ©sentatif en deux fois durant cinq ans. Les observations sur l'espace amĂ©nagĂ© (stations d'observation d'un ha) ont Ă©tĂ© faites en fonction du gradient par rapport Ă  la digue filtrante tandis que sur le tĂ©moin (station d'observation d'un ha), les mesures ont Ă©tĂ© homogĂ©nĂ©isĂ©es sur l'ensemble de la parcelle. Les rĂ©sultats obtenus des inventaires de vĂ©gĂ©tation montrent un effet positif de l'amĂ©nagement sur la dynamique de la vĂ©gĂ©tation qui se maintient aprĂšs cinq annĂ©es. Les effets concernent la composition floristique pour laquelle certaines espĂšces connaissent une amĂ©lioration. Il s'agit de Panicum laetum (+ 5,9% en 1999 et + 1,9% en 2003), Setaria pallide fusca (+ 2,4 Ă  + 8,6%), Cassia obtusifolia (+ 13,6% Ă  + 9,3%) et Zornia glochidiata (- 2,9% Ă  + 1,7 %). Les espĂšces en rĂ©gression sont surtout composĂ©es de Schoenefeldia gracilis (+ 1,7% Ă  - 12%) et Microchloa indica (- 28,9% Ă  - 12,1% entre 1999 et 2003). L'Ă©cart de recouvrement du sol entre la parcelle amĂ©nagĂ©e et le tĂ©moin a Ă©tĂ© de -0,4% en 1999 contre + 14,6% en 2003. La biomasse produite et la capacitĂ© de charge ont connu une expansion allant de 3,14 Ă  4,5 fois par rapport Ă  l'espace non amĂ©nagĂ©. Cependant, des suivis doivent encore ĂȘtre maintenus en associant surtout les effets de l'exploitation (fauche et pĂąture) pour mieux prĂ©ciser l'efficacitĂ© et la durabilitĂ© de ces amĂ©nagements sur les zones pastorales en mĂȘme temps que des stratĂ©gies sont dĂ©finies au niveau village sur la gestion de ces espaces restaurĂ©s

    Decoding the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: potential risk variants and future direction for North Africa

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    IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both age-associated diseases. Identification of shared genes could help develop early diagnosis and preventive strategies. Although genetic background plays a crucial role in these diseases, we noticed an underrepresentation tendency of North African populations in omics studies.Materials and methodsFirst, we conducted a comprehensive review of genes and pathways shared between T2D and AD through PubMed. Then, the function of the identified genes and variants was investigated using annotation tools including PolyPhen2, RegulomeDB, and miRdSNP. Pathways enrichment analyses were performed with g:Profiler and EnrichmentMap. Next, we analyzed variant distributions in 16 worldwide populations using PLINK2, R, and STRUCTURE software. Finally, we performed an inter-ethnic comparison based on the minor allele frequency of T2D-AD common variants.ResultsA total of 59 eligible papers were included in our study. We found 231 variants and 363 genes shared between T2D and AD. Variant annotation revealed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a high pathogenic score, three SNPs with regulatory effects on the brain, and six SNPs with potential effects on miRNA-binding sites. The miRNAs affected were implicated in T2D, insulin signaling pathways, and AD. Moreover, replicated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to plasma protein binding, positive regulation of amyloid fibril deposition, microglia activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Multidimensional screening performed based on the 363 shared genes showed that main North African populations are clustered together and are divergent from other worldwide populations. Interestingly, our results showed that 49 SNP associated with T2D and AD were present in North African populations. Among them, 11 variants located in DNM3, CFH, PPARG, ROHA, AGER, CLU, BDNF1, CST9, and PLCG1 genes display significant differences in risk allele frequencies between North African and other populations.ConclusionOur study highlighted the complexity and the unique molecular architecture of North African populations regarding T2D-AD shared genes. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of T2D-AD shared genes and ethnicity-specific investigation studies for a better understanding of the link behind these diseases and to develop accurate diagnoses using personalized genetic biomarkers

    Rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effects of the abstraction reaction of H atoms from methylsilane

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    International audienceThermal rate constants for chemical reactions using improved canonical variational transition state theory (ICVT) with small-curvature tunnelling (SCT) contributions in a temperature range 180-2000 K are reported. The general procedure is used with high-quality ab initio computations and semi-classical reaction probabilities along the minimum energy path (MEP). The approach is based on a vibrational adiabatic reaction path and is applied to the multiple-channel hydrogen abstraction reaction H + SiH3CH3 → products and its isotopically substituted variants. All the degrees of freedom are optimised and harmonic vibrational frequencies and zero-point energies are calculated at the MP2 level with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Single-point energies are calculated at a higher level of theory; CCSD(T)-F12a/VTZ-F12. ICVT/SCT rate constants show that the quantum tunnelling contributions at low temperatures are relatively important and the H-abstraction channel from SiH3 group of SiH3CH3 is the major pathway. The total rate constants are given by the following expression: ktot(ICVT/SCT) = 2.29 10-18 T2.42 exp(-350.9/T) cm3 molec-1 s-1. These calculated rates are in agreement with the available experiments. The ICVT/SCT method is further exploited to predict primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects, respectively)

    QM/MM Study of the H<sub>2</sub> Formation on the Surface of a Water Ice Grain Doped With Formaldehyde: Molecular Dynamics and Reaction Kinetics

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    International audienceFormaldehyde has been widely observed in the icy mantle of interstellar grains. H2CO may be formed from successive hydrogenations of CO and may further contribute to the chemical complexity of the Interstellar medium (ISM) participating to heterogeneous reactions with colliding gas phase atoms. Within this context, Eley-Rideal and Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constants of H2 formation on a formaldehyde doped amorphous water ice grain model of the ISM, were computed over a wide temperature range [15–2000 K]. We used classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to build the model of the H2CO doped ice surface. Then we studied theoretically by means of hybrid QM/MM ab initio and molecular mechanics methodology (ONIOM) H atoms abstraction from formaldehyde molecules and the H 2 formation. Specifically, we investigate the reactivity of the gas phase H atom toward one formaldehyde molecule lying at one of the slab surfaces. The reaction path and the energetics are predicted, the mechanism is found to be exothermic by 14.89 kcal/mol and the barrier is 6.75 kcal/mol at the QM level CBS/DLPNO-CCSD(T)//ONIOM/aug-cc-pVTZ. We employ two approaches that take into account tunnelling and non-classical reflection effects by means of the Zero Curvature Tunnelling (ZCT), and the Small Curvature Tunnelling (SCT) which all provided comparable results to predict the kinetics of the reaction path. The rate constants show important quantum tunnelling effects at low temperatures when compared to rates obtained from the purely classical transition-state theory (TST) and from the canonical variational transition state theory (CVT). Corner cutting effects are highlighted in the SCT calculations by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude with respect to ZCT rate constants at low temperatures

    Effect of leaf-to-fruit ratio and girdling on gas exchanges, fruit growth and carbohydrate contents at different stages of fruit development of Olea europaea L. 'Picholine'

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    The effects of different source-sink ratios on fruit quality were studied for the table olive cultivar ‘Picholine’. This cultivar represents 15% of the production of table olives in Tunisia. Fruit size is an important quality parameter for table olives as small fruits have lower economical value. Three tertiary branches/tree were selected on 27-years-old olive trees (10 trees in total) at the start of the growing season 2009. After fruit set in early May four fruit-to-leaf ratios were imposed on 1-year-old wood (no fruits, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3) of each branch. Apexes of all shoots were removed in order to reduce the vegetative sinks. In mid-July five trees were randomly selected and all branches were girdled. The absence of fruits or girdling decreased leaf net photosynthetic rate (An) and increased leaf carbohydrate contents. Girdling stimulated fruit growth, while the effect of leaf-to-fruit ratio was less pronounced

    A prospective cohort study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: Dynamics of the Leishmanin skin test and its predictive value for protection against infection and disease.

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    BackgroundLeishmanin Skin Test (LST) is considered as a useful indicator of past infection by Leishmania parasites. However, the temporal dynamics of a positive LST under different epidemiologic scenarios and whether it relates to the protection against the recurrence of an overt disease are not fully documented.Methodology/principal findingsWe report here on a population based prospective study conducted on 2686 individuals living in two foci located in Central Tunisia, to assess over a one-year epidemiologic season, the incidence of Leishmania (L.) major infection and disease and changes in LST reactivity. The two foci were both endemic for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) due to L. major, but contrasted in their history for this disease (ie: an old focus versus a recent focus). We found that most infections occurred in the new focus (290/1000; 95% CI: 265-315 person-years) with an incidence rate of CL lesions 2.4 times higher than in the old focus. Likewise, the rates of LST reactivity reversion and loss, in the new focus, were 99/1000[38-116] person-years and 14/1000[8-21] person-years, respectively. Loss of LST reactivity was not noticed in the old focus. Interestingly, the incidence rates of symptomatic infection did not differ significantly according to the LST status at enrolment (negative versus positive) between the combined foci and the new one.Conclusions/significanceOur findings confirm LST as a good tool for assessing L. major cryptic infection. However, the instability of the LST positivity in new foci should be considered as an important confounder of the outcome of this infection when developing a research protocol for vaccine trial

    Genetic characterization of suspected MODY patients in Tunisia by targeted next-generation sequencing

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    International audienceAIMS: Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The diagnosis of MODY and its subtypes is based on genetic testing. Our aim was investigating MODY by means of next-generation sequencing in the Tunisian population.METHODS: We performed a targeted sequencing of 27 genes known to cause monogenic diabetes in 11 phenotypically suspected Tunisian patients. We retained genetic variants passing filters of frequency in public databases as well as their probable effects on protein structures and functions evaluated by bioinformatics prediction tools.RESULTS: Five heterozygous variants were found in four patients. They include two mutations in HNF1A and GCK that are the causative genes of the two most prevalent MODY subtypes described in the literature. Other possible mutations, including novel frameshift and splice-site variants were identified in ABCC8 gene.CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to investigate the clinical application of targeted next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of MODY in Africa. The combination of this approach with a filtering/prioritization strategy made a step towards the identification of MODY mutations in the Tunisian population

    Association of apolipoprotein A5 gene variants with metabolic syndrome in Tunisian population.

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    International audienceAIM OF THE STUDY : APOA5 has been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its traits in several populations. In North Africa, only the Moroccan population was investigated. Our aim is to assess the association between APOA5 gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to MetS and its components in the Tunisian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 594 participants from the Tunisian population were genotyped for two polymorphisms rs3135506 and rs651821 located in APOA5 gene using KASPar technology. Statistical analyses were performed using R software. RESULTS : The SNP rs651821 increased the risk of MetS under the dominant model (OR=1.91 [1.17-3.12], P=0.008) whereas the variant rs3135506 was not associated with MetS. After stratification of the cohort following the sex, only the variant rs651821 showed a significant association with MetS among the women group. The influence of the geographic origin of the studied population on the genotype distribution of APOA5 variants showed that the variant rs651821 was significantly associated with MetS only for the Northern population. The association analyses of the variants rs651821 and rs3135506 with different quantitative traits of MetS showed a significant association only between the variant rs3135506 and triglycerides levels. CONCLUSION : This is the first study reporting the association of APOA5 gene variants with MetS in Tunisia. Our study emphasizes the role of APOA5 variants in the regulation of the triglycerides blood levels. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of these associations and to better understand the physiopathology of the MetS

    Immunogenicity of Mix-and-Match CoronaVac/BNT162b2 Regimen versus Homologous CoronaVac/CoronaVac Vaccination: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Parallel Group Superiority Trial

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    (1) Background: This study aimed to compare the immunogenicity of the mix-and-match CoronaVac/BNT162b2 vaccination to the homologous CoronaVac/CoronaVac regimen. (2) Methods: We conducted a simple-blinded randomized superiority trial to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibodies and anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG concentrations in blood samples of participants who had received the first dose of CoronaVac vaccine followed by a dose of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccine. The primary endpoint for immunogenicity was the serum-neutralizing antibody level with a percentage of inhibition at 90% at 21–35 days after the boost. A difference of 25% between groups was considered clinically relevant. (3) Results: Among the 240 eligible participants, the primary endpoint data were available for 100 participants randomly allocated to the mix-and-match group versus 99 participants randomly allocated to the homologous dose group. The mix-and-match regimen elicited significantly higher levels of neutralizing antibodies (median level of 96%, interquartile range (IQR) (95–97) versus median level of 94%, IQR (81–96) and anti-spike IgG antibodies (median level of 13,460, IQR (2557–29,930) versus median level of 1190, IQR (347–4964) compared to the homologous group. Accordingly, the percentage of subjects with a percentage of neutralizing antibodies > 90% was significantly higher in the mix-and-match group (90.0%) versus the homologous (60.6%). Interestingly, no severe events were reported within 30 days after the second dose of vaccination in both groups. (4) Conclusions: Our data showed the superiority of the mix-and-match CoronaVac/BNT162b2 vaccination compared to the CoronaVac/CoronaVac regimen in terms of immunogenicity, thus constituting a proof-of-concept study supporting the use of inactivated vaccines in a mix-and-match strategy while ensuring good immunogenicity and safety
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