4 research outputs found

    Memory for contingent versus noncontingent events

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    Twenty-four 7.5- to 8-month old infants were presented with two manipulanda and given either behavior-contingent or noncontingent experience with an object. Infants in the contingent group learned and remembered the controlling action for up to 1 week (t(11)=2.83,

    Vicarious reinforcement is a result of earlier learning

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    The term vicarious reinforcement has been used by social-learning theorists to denote imitation that results from the observed reinforcement of behavior performed by a model. This conceptualization is incompatible with that of behavior analysis because it ignores the effect of prior learning on the observer\u27s behavior and violates the definition of reinforcement. Experiment 1 replicated prior findings. Preschool children (N=32) imitated a model\u27s reinforced choice responses, in the absence of direct experience with contingencies. In Experiment 2 (N=48), subjects failed to imitate reinforced modeled behavior when observed behavior contingencies were \u27incongruent\u27 with those experienced. The results were interpreted as consistent with the behavior-analytic position that observed reinforcement of a model\u27s behavior functions as a discriminative cue (SD), not reinforcement, for the observer\u27s imitative responses