1,459 research outputs found

    Final state multiplicity and particle correlation in small systems

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    Final state variables and particle correlation will be discussed under a Multiple Parton Interaction (MPI) interpretation. The state of the art about the latest results on such variables will be provided. Furthermore the role played by event multiplicity in the deep understanding of particle correlation, in particular concerning the new results on the Long-Range Near-Side two particle correlations by the CMS Collaboration, will be discussed.Comment: 10 pages, 14 figures. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions at the LHC, Chiapas, Mexic

    Prime prove italiane di conquista dello spazio: aspetti tecnici e politici internazionali (1950-1961)

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    The launch into orbit of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I, in 1957, represents a turning point in human history. From that moment on, Russia declared the competition with the United States open, and this particular period, now generally known as the “Space Race”, demonstrates how a new element like Outer Space, could make huge changes in the classic dynamics of state relations. The Space Race was truly the most spectacular aspect of the Cold War. Because of the great “spectacle” that followed the first satellites launches, the first experiences with living beings on board, until the human exploration of space, the race between the US and the USSR, is something relatively known. Less known, on the contrary, is the role of the third country in the world, after the US and USSR to launch its own satellite into orbit; Italy. The San Marco Project, planned by his founding father, Prof. Lieut. Luigi Broglio, marked the beginning and the earliest development of Italian space activities. The Paper deals with the first years of the San Marco Project history, from the birth of the idea,to the first tests, introducing the relevant role of the Italian physicist Edoardo Amaldi, and reconstructing the facts before the launch of the first Italian Satellite in 1964

    Sedimentation of Nanoparticles in in vitro Toxicity Assays

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    Attached extended abstract published in the conference proceedingsJRC.DG.I.5-Nanobioscience

    How human papillomavirus replication and immune evasion strategies take advantage of the host DNA damage repair machinery

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    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex signalling network activated when DNA is altered by intrinsic or extrinsic agents. DDR plays important roles in genome stability and cell cycle regulation, as well as in tumour transformation. Viruses have evolved successful life cycle strategies in order to ensure a chronic persistence in the host, virtually avoiding systemic sequelae and death. This process promotes the periodic shedding of large amounts of infectious particles to maintain a virus reservoir in individual hosts, while allowing virus spreading within the community. To achieve such a successful lifestyle, the human papilloma virus (HPV) needs to escape the host defence systems. The key to understanding how this is achieved is in the virus replication process that provides by itself an evasion mechanism by inhibiting and delaying the host immune response against the viral infection. Numerous studies have demonstrated that HPV exploits both the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) DDR pathways to replicate its genome and maintain a persistent infection by downregulating the innate and cell-mediated immunity. This review outlines how HPV interacts with the ATM-and ATR-dependent DDR machinery during the viral life cycle to create an environment favourable to viral replication, and how the interaction with the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family and the deregulation of the Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT pathways may impact the expression of interferon-inducible genes and the innate immune responses

    Flexible Polydimethylsiloxane Foams Decorated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enable Unprecedented Detection of Ultralow Strain and Pressure Coupled with a Large Working Range

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    Low-cost piezoresistive strain/pressure sensors with large working range, at the same time able to reliably detect ultralow strain (≤0.1%) and pressure (≤1 Pa), are one of the challenges that have still to be overcome for flexible piezoresistive materials toward personalized health-monitoring applications. In this work, we report on unprecedented, simultaneous detection of ultrasmall strain (0.1%, i.e., 10 μm displacement over 10 mm) and subtle pressure (20 Pa, i.e., a force of only 2 mN over an area of 1 cm2) in compression mode, coupled with a large working range (i.e., up to 60% for strain - 6 mm in displacement - and 50 kPa for pressure) using piezoresistive, flexible three-dimensional (3D) macroporous polydimethylsiloxane (pPDMS) foams decorated with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). pPDMS/CNT foams with pore size up to 500 μm (i.e., twice the size of those of commonly used foams, at least) and porosity of 77%, decorated with a nanostructured surface network of CNTs at densities ranging from 7.5 to 37 mg/cm3 are prepared using a low-cost and scalable process, through replica molding of sacrificial sugar templates and subsequent drop-casting of CNT ink. A thorough characterization shows that piezoresistive properties of the foams can be finely tuned by controlling the CNT density and reach an optimum at a CNT density of 25 mg/cm3, for which a maximum change of the material resistivity (e.g., ρ0/ρ50 = 4 at 50% strain) is achieved under compression. Further static and dynamic characterization of the pPDMS/CNT foams with 25 mg/cm3 of CNTs highlights that detection limits for strain and pressure are 0.03% (3 μm displacement over 10 mm) and 6 Pa (0.6 mN over an area of 1 cm2), respectively; moreover, good stability and limited hysteresis are apparent by cycling the foams with 255 compression-release cycles over the strain range of 0-60%, at different strain rates up to 10 mm/min. Our results on piezoresistive, flexible pPDMS/CNT foams pave the way toward breakthrough applications for personalized health care, though not limited to these, which have not been fully addressed to date with flexible strain/stress sensors

    Analisi di rete basata sul modello matematico dei grafi, sperimentazione nell\u27ambito del progetto BINET

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    The research activity carried out in BINET project aims at designing a Business Intelligence framework based on Social Network technology, better known as Complex Networks in the healthcare field, in order to establish a platform to analyze data through non-conventional graph methodologies and interfaces (graph data-browsing). Scientific validation of methodologies used by the framework is carried out in the healthcare field and focuses on the analysis of therapeutic, time and spatial associations among the various treatments, such as outpatient, drug prescriptions, length of hospital stays etc., received by the patients recruited for the study, to find out correlations between treatments at the individual level and enabling patient "follow-up". Another aspect of the validation concerns the analysis of papers extracted from epidemiological and clinical databases in order to identify emerging technologies, standard of care, "benchmarking" among various operational units dealing with the same pathologies, as well as population profiling to enable identification of homogeneous groups, from a socio-demographic point of view and healthcare demand, subject to tailored prevention campaigns. A more specific application deals with the analysis of drug prescriptions to find out correlations between patient pathology profiles (derived from all treatments and diagnosis received by patients) and prescriptive behaviors of their general practitioners in order to define shared "guidelines" and identify standard practices to compare with practice guidelines. The document describe some sperimentation in these area

    Celecoxib inhibits proliferation and survival of chronic myelogeous leukemia (CML) cells via AMPK-dependent regulation of β-catenin and mTORC1/2.

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    CML is effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the efficacy of these drugs is confined to the chronic phase of the disease and development of resistance to TKIs remains a pressing issue. The anti-inflammatory COX2 inhibitor celecoxib has been utilized as anti-tumour drug due to its anti-proliferative activity. However, its effects in hematological malignancies, in particular CML, have not been investigated yet. Thus, we tested biological effects and mechanisms of action of celecoxib in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) CML and ALL cells.We show here that celecoxib suppresses the growth of Ph+ cell lines by increasing G1-phase and apoptotic cells and reducing S- and G2-phase cells. These effects were independent of COX2 inhibition but required the rapid activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the consequent inhibition mTORC1 and 2. Treatment with celecoxib also restored GSK3β function and led to down-regulation of β-catenin activity through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms, two effects likely to contribute to Ph+ cell growth suppression by celecoxib.Celecoxib inhibited colony formation of TKI-resistant Ph+ cell lines including those with the T315I BCR-ABL mutation and acted synergistically with imatinib in suppressing colony formation of TKI-sensitive Ph+ cell lines. Finally, it suppressed colony formation of CD34+ cells from CML patients, while sparing most CD34+ progenitors from healthy donors, and induced apoptosis of primary Ph+ ALL cells.Together, these findings indicate that celecoxib may serve as a COX2-independent lead compound to simultaneously target the mTOR and β-catenin pathways, key players in the resistance of CML stem cells to TKIs

    Layer-by-layer biofunctionalization of nanostructured porous silicon for high-sensitivity and high-selectivity label-free affinity biosensing

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    Nanostructured materials premise to revolutionize the label-free biosensing of analytes for clinical applications, leveraging the deeper interaction between materials and analytes with comparable size. However, when the characteristic dimension of the materials reduces to the nanoscale, the surface functionalization for the binding of bioreceptors becomes a complex issue that can affect the performance of label-free biosensors. Here we report on an effective and robust route for surface biofunctionalization of nanostructured materials based on the layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic nano-assembly of oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes, which are engineered with bioreceptors to enable label-free detection of target analytes. LbL biofunctionalization is demonstrated using nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) interferometers for affinity detection of streptavidin in saliva, through LbL nano-assembly of a bi-layer of positively-charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and negatively-charged biotinylated poly(methacrylic acid) (b-PMAA). High sensitivity in streptavidin detection is achieved, with high selectivity and stability, down to a detection limit of 600 fM

    The Language of Pain in the Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome: Metaphors as a Key to Understanding the Experience of Pain and as a Rehabilitation Tool

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    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are a heterogeneous group of Heritable Connective Tissue Disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Among the different types, the hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is the most frequent and includes generalized joint hypermobility as the major diagnostic criterion. Joint hypermobility in hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is often associated with pain that does not always allow the use of effective pain-reducing treatments. Patients with hEDS constantly describe their pain in detail. Eighty-nine patients with hEDS diagnoses were recruited and evaluated. They were asked to describe their pain in writing. The texts were examined through Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Correlational analyses were conducted between pain perception and language. A comparison of high/low pain perception and the quality of metaphors was carried out. The results showed that language quality varies depending on how much pain is perceived. The greater the pain is perceived, the lesser the positive effects and the greater the negative effects and dehumanizing metaphors are being used. Moreover, a greater pain seems to be related to a verbal experience of greater isolation and less self-care. In conclusion, the use of metaphors is a useful tool for examining illness experience and may help clinicians in the rehabilitation program

    Three-Dimensional Virtual Anatomy as a New Approach for Medical Student’s Learning

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    none8noMost medical and health science schools adopt innovative tools to implement the teaching of anatomy to their undergraduate students. The increase in technological resources for educational purposes allows the use of virtual systems in the field of medicine, which can be considered decisive for improving anatomical knowledge, a requisite for safe and competent medical practice. Among these virtual tools, the Anatomage Table 7.0 represents, to date, a pivotal anatomical device for student education and training medical professionals. This review focuses attention on the potential of the Anatomage Table in the anatomical learning process and clinical practice by discussing these topics based on recent publication findings and describing their trends during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The reports documented a great interest in and a positive impact of the use of this technological table by medical students for teaching gross anatomy. Anatomage allows to describe, with accuracy and at high resolution, organ structure, vascularization, and innervation, as well as enables to familiarize with radiological images of real patients by improving knowledge in the radiological and surgical fields. Furthermore, its use can be considered strategic in a pandemic period, since it ensures, through an online platform, the continuation of anatomical and surgical training on dissecting cadavers.openBartoletti-Stella, Anna; Gatta, Valentina; Mariani, Giulia Adalgisa; Gobbi, Pietro; Falconi, Mirella; Manzoli, Lucia; Faenza, Irene; Salucci, SaraBartoletti-Stella, Anna; Gatta, Valentina; Mariani, Giulia Adalgisa; Gobbi, Pietro; Falconi, Mirella; Manzoli, Lucia; Faenza, Irene; Salucci, Sar
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