76 research outputs found

    Missing energy and the measurement of the CP-violating phase in neutrino oscillations

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    In the next generation of long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, aiming to determine the charge-parity violating phase δCP\delta_{CP} in the appearance channel, fine-grained time-projection chambers are expected to play an important role. In this Letter, we analyze an influence of realistic detector capabilities on the δCP\delta_{CP} sensitivity for a setup similar to that of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. We find that the effect of the missing energy, carried out by undetected particles, is sizable. Although the reconstructed neutrino energy can be corrected for the missing energy, the accuracy of such procedure has to exceed 20\%, to avoid a sizable bias in the extracted δCP\delta_{CP} value.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures. v2 matches the version published in PR

    Esperimenti di Neutrini negli USA

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    Gains from Variety: Refugee-Host Interactions in Uganda

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    Refugees are mainly hosted in low-income countries, where they often remain for a long time. Therefore, it is important to assess how they integrate with the local economy and to what extent their presence can contribute to the transition to a more dynamic economic environment. Proximity between refugees and hosts might improve the welfare of both groups by increasing opportunities for mutually beneficial economic exchanges. In particular, welfare gains might be generated through the availability of a greater variety of commodities. In this paper we propose a theoretical model that uses the love for variety to frame the possible benefits arising from the interaction between hosts and refugees facilitated by geographical proximity. We complement the conceptual framework with an empirical analysis that makes use of a unique dataset covering around 80% of the refugee population living in Ugandan settlements and the adjoining host households. The empirical results show that proximity between groups increases the food expenditure and the variety of food consumption of both groups. We also found that exposition to inter-group interactions rises the non-food expenditure, and the probability to run a farm and a non-farm enterprise by refugee households, while hosts are not crowding out from production

    Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

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    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two muon-neutrino disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with a ~10% accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. On the other hand, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.Comment: 16 pages, 14 figures, matches the version published in Phys. Rev.

    Polysaccharides on gelatin-based hydrogels differently affect chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells

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    Selection of feasible hybrid-hydrogels for best chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) represents an important challenge in cartilage regeneration. In this study, three-dimensional hybrid hydrogels obtained by chemical crosslinking of poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE), gelatin (G) without or with chitosan (Ch) or dextran (Dx) polysaccharides were developed. The hydrogels, namely G-PEG, G-PEG-Ch and G-PEG-Dx, were prepared with an innovative, versatile and cell-friendly technique that involves two preparation steps specifically chosen to increase the degree of crosslinking and the physical-mechanical stability of the product: a first homogeneous phase reaction followed by directional freezing, freeze-drying and post-curing. Chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSC) was tested on these hydrogels to ascertain whether the presence of different polysaccharides could favor the formation of the native cartilage structure. We demonstrated that the hydrogels exhibited an open pore porous morphology with high interconnectivity and the incorporation of Ch and Dx into the G-PEG common backbone determined a slightly reduced stiffness compared to that of G-PEG hydrogels. We demonstrated that G-PEG-Dx showed a significant increase of its anisotropic characteristic and G-PEG-Ch exhibited higher and faster stress relaxation behavior than the other hydrogels. These characteristics were associated to absence of chondrogenic differentiation on G-PEG-Dx scaffold and good chondrogenic differentiation on G-PEG and G-PEG-Ch. Furthermore, G-PEG-Ch induced the minor collagen proteins and the formation of collagen fibrils with a diameter like native cartilage. This study demonstrated that both anisotropic and stress relaxation characteristics of the hybrid hydrogels were important features directly influencing the chondrogenic differentiation potentiality of hBM-MSC
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