91 research outputs found

    Addressing the Racial Disparity in Birth Outcomes: Implications for Maternal Racial Identity on Birthweight

    Full text link
    Background: As a widely used marker of health, birthweight has been a persistent racialized disparity with the low birthweight rate of Blacks in Alabama nearly doubling the national average. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of racial identity and acculturation on birthweight in a sample of Black women living in Alabama. Methods: Black women (n=72) in West Alabama were surveyed about the birthweight of their first born child. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: Racial identity was the only significant predictor of birthweight. Mothers with a strong racial identity reported having low birthweight babies less often than those who scored lower on racial identity. Further exploration of racial identity revealed self-image as the essential element that predicted birthweight. Birthweight increased 4.2 ounces for each additional degree of self-image. Results also indicated that birthweight decreased as mothers’ age increased, within the widely accepted optimal maternal age range 21 to 35. Conclusions: Results add to the existing body of literature in support of the positive effects racial identity has on health. Findings on age are congruent with the weathering hypothesis which states that the health of Black women may begin to deteriorate in early adulthood possibly due to the strain of racism

    The Association between Sibling Relationship Dynamics and Empathic Abilities in Young Adulthood

    Get PDF
    Existing research concerning the effects of empathy development has primarily focused on the role of parents, culture, and education but has overlooked the role of siblings. This current retrospective study investigates sibling relationship quality and cognitive and affective empathy in young adults to address the question of whether siblings influence young adults’ empathy processes. A total of 205 young adults participated in the study and completed questionnaires examining their sibling relationship quality and empathy. Strong positive relationships were observed between affective empathy and sibling relationship quality, which suggests that siblings may play a unique role in shaping each other’s affective empathy development. Young adults with a sibling who made a positive impact on them had higher sibling relationship quality and affective empathy scores. Additionally, female participants showed higher affective empathy and quality relationship with their siblings than male participants

    Pregnancy massage reduces prematurity, low birthweight and postpartum depression

    Get PDF
    Pregnant women diagnosed with major depression were given 12 weeks of twice per week massage therapy by their significant other or only standard treatment as a control group. The massage therapy group women versus the control group women not only had reduced depression by the end of the therapy period, but they also had reduced depression and cortisol levels during the postpartum period. Their newborns were also less likely to be born prematurely and low birthweight, and they had lower cortisol levels and performed better on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment habituation, orientation and motor scales.We would like to thank the women, men and infants who participated in this study and the research associates who assisted us. This research was supported by a Merit Award (MH46586), Senior Research Scientist Awards (MH00331 and AT001585) and a March of Dimes Grant (# 12-FYO3-48) to Tiffany Field and funding from Johnson and Johnson Pediatric Institute to the Touch Research Institute

    Prenatal cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight

    Get PDF
    Three hundred depressed pregnant women were recruited at approximately 20 weeks gestation. They were then divided by a median split into high and low urinary cortisol level groups. The high cortisol group had higher CES-D depression scores and higher inhibition (BIS) scores prenatally. Their fetuses had smaller head circumference, abdominal circumference, biparietal diameter and fetal weight. The high cortisol group neonates were shorter gestational age and lower birthweight and they had lower Brazelton habituation and higher Brazelton reflex scores. Discriminant function analyses suggested that cortisol levels more accurately classified short gestation and low birthweight groups than CES-D depression scores.National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) - (#AT01585).National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Senior Scientist Award - (MH #00331), (MH #46586).March of Dimes - Grant (#12-FY03-48)

    Relacionamento conjugal durante a gravidez mulheres e homens ansiosos e deprimidos

    Get PDF
    To assess anxiety, depression and relationship satisfaction in both women and men during pregnancy, the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered during the second trimester to a sample of 59 pregnant women and their partners. Anxious pregnant women rated their relationships as less positive. Depressed pregnant women also rated their relationships as less positive. The women’s anxiety scores were predictive of their positive and negative relationship scores. The women and their partners’ negative relationship scores were also predictive of each others’ negative relationship scores. These results highlight the importance of targeting anxiety as well as depression, and pregnant women as well as their partners in prenatal intervention programs.Para avaliar a ansiedade, a depressão e o relacionamento conjugal em mulheres e homens durante a gravidez, o State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), o Center for Epidemiological Studies ­Depression Scale (CES­D) e o Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) foram administrados durante o segundo trimestre a uma amostra de 59 grávidas e seus companheiros. As mulheres grávidas ansiosas avaliaram o seu relacionamento como menos positivo. As mulheres grávidas deprimidas também avaliaram o seu relacionamento como mesmo positivo. Os valores de ansiedade mostraram ser preditores do relacionamento positivo e negativo. Os valores do relacionamento da mulher e do seu companheiro também se mostraram mutuamente preditores dos seus relacionamentos negativos. Estes resultados mostram a importância de considerar a ansiedade tanto quanto a depressão e a mulher grávida tanto quanto o seu companheiro em programas de intervenção pré-natal.This research was supported by grants from the March of Dimes (12FY03-48) and NIMH (MH# 46586) and NIMH Research ScientistAwards (MH# 00331 andAT# 001585) to Tiffany Field, funding from Johnson & Johnson to the Touch Research Institutes, and a fellowship to Barbara Figueiredo (POCI/SAU-ESP/56397/2004, funded under the 2010 Science and Innovation Operational Program (POCI 2010) of the Community Support Board III, and supported by the European Community Fund FEDER)

    Sleep disturbances in depressed pregnant women and their newborns

    Get PDF
    Pregnant women (N= 253) were recruited during their second trimester of pregnancy (M= 22.3 weeks gestation) and assigned to depressed (N= 83) and non-depressed groups based on a SCID diagnosis of depression. They were then given self-report measures on sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety and anger, and their urine was assayed for norepinephrine and cortisol. These measures were repeated during their third trimester (M= 32.4 weeks). Their newborns were then observed during sleep. During both the second and third trimesters, the depressed women had more sleep disturbances and higher depression, anxiety and anger scores. They also had higher norepinephrine and cortisol levels. The newborns of the depressed mothers also had more sleep disturbances including less time in deep sleep and more time in indeterminate (disorganized) sleep, and they were more active and cried/fussed more.We would like to thank the parents and infants who participated in this study. This Research was supported by a merit award (MH# 46586) and Senior Research Scientist Awards (MH# 00331 and AT# 001585) and a March of Dimes Grant (#12-FYO3-48) to Tiffany Field and funding from Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute to the Touch Research Institutes

    Massage therapy reduces pain in pregnant women, alleviates prenatal depression in both parents and improves their relationships

    Get PDF
    Prenatally depressed women (N=47) were randomly assigned to a group that received massage twice weekly from their partners from 20 weeks gestation until the end of pregnancy or a control group. Self-reported leg pain, back pain, depression, anxiety and anger decreased more for the massaged pregnant women than for the control group women. In addition, the partners who massaged the pregnant women versus the control group partners reported less depressed mood, anxiety and anger across the course of the massage therapy period. Finally, scores on a relationship questionnaire improved more for both the women and the partners in the massage group. These data suggest that not only mood states but also relationships improve mutually when depressed pregnant women are massaged by their partners.We would like to thank the mothers and fathers who participated in this study. This research was supported by a Merit Award (MH # 46586), an NIH grant (AT# 00370), Senior Research Scientist Awards (MH#0033 1 and AT# 001585) and a March of Dimes Grant (# 12-FYO3-48) to Tiffany Field and funding from Johnson and Johnson Pediatric Institute to the Touch Research Institutes

    Partner relationships during the transition to parenthood

    Get PDF
    Partner relationships are relevant in the psychological adjustment during the transition to parenthood, but mothers have been studied more often than fathers in this respect. The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) to assess negative and positive dimensions of the partner relationship, The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depression an the State Anxiety Inventory (STAi) to assess anxiety were administered to 43 women and their partners recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy and seen again until after delivery to assess differences in women's/men's anxiety and depression according to partner relationships. Results indicate that women/men with a less positive relationship with the partner show higher anxiety than women/men with a more positive partner relationship, and those women/men with a more negative relationship with the partner show both higher depression and higher anxiety than women/men with a less negative relationship. Also partners of women/men with a more negative partner relationship show higher depression than partners of women/men with a less negative relationship. Psychological adjustement during the transition to parenthood of both the women/men and the partner is impacted by the partner relationship.We would like to thank the couples that participated in this study and the researchers (Yanexy Vera and Karla Gil) who assisted with the study. This research was supported by grants from the March of Dimes (12FY03-48) and NIMH (MH# 46586) and NIMH Research Scientist Awards (MH# 00331 and AT# 001585) to Tiffany Field, funding from Johnson & Johnson to the Touch Research Institutes, and a grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (POCI/SAU-ESP/56397/2004) to Barbara Figueiredo

    The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Adults and Children in the South

    Get PDF
    A community of students, at different ranks, and two faculty members engaged in the development of a research project aimed at studying the consumption of complementary and/or alternative medicine (CAM) in the South. A well-established store in the community was identified for the study because of its focus on natural products and well-being. The students and faculty developed a CAM survey and the store owners provided feedback and gave approval to conduct the study on their patrons. The survey explored CAM use among adults and children in comparison to CAM uses in other regions of the country. Challenges and lessons learned from the engaged project are discussed, along with the findings that included family remedies and folklore recipes used in the South for varying ailments and symptoms

    Chronic prenatal depression and neonatal outcome

    Get PDF
    Four hundred and thirty pregnant women were recruited at approximately 22 weeks gestation at prenatal clinics. Of these, 86 (20%) were diagnosed as depressed. The women were seen again at approximately 32 weeks gestation and after delivery. Chronicity of depression was evidenced by continuing high depression scores in those women diagnosed as depressed. Comorbid problems were chronically high anxiety, anger, sleep disturbance, and pain scores. Less optimal outcomes for the depressed women included lower gestational age and lower birthweight of their newborns
    • …
    corecore