35 research outputs found

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Quinidine in Pediatric Patients with KCNT1 Genetic Variants

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    Quinidine (QND) is an old antimalarial drug that was used in the early 20th century as an antiarrhythmic agent. Currently, QND is receiving attention for its use in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) due to potassium sodium-activated channel subfamily T member 1 (KCNT1) genetic variants. Here, we report the application of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in pediatric patients carrying KCNT1 genetic variants and orally treated with QND for developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE). We measured plasma levels of QND and its metabolite hydroquinidine (H-QND) by using a validated method based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Three pediatric patients (median age 4.125 years, IQR 2.375-4.125) received increasing doses of QND. Cardiac toxicity was monitored at every dose change. Reduction in seizure frequency ranged from 50 to 90%. Our results show that QND is a promising drug for pediatric patients with DEE due to KCNT1 genetic variants. Although QND blood levels were significantly lower than the therapeutic range as an anti-arrhythmic drug, patients showed a significant improvement in seizure burden. These data underlie the utility of TDM for QND not only to monitor its toxic effects but also to evaluate possible drug-drug interactions

    Immunoregulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles on T Lymphocytes.

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    The immunomodulatory activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is largely mediated by paracrine factors. We have recently shown that the immunosuppressive effects of MSCs on B lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture can be reproduced by extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from MSC culture supernatants. Here we investigated the effect of bone marrow-derived MSC-EVs on T cells on PBMC cultures stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 beads. Stimulation increased the number of proliferating CD3+ cells as well as of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Coculture with MSCs inhibited the proliferation of CD3+ cells, with no significant changes in apoptosis. Addition of MSC-EVs to PBMCs did not affect proliferation of CD3+ cells, but induced the apoptosis of CD3+ cells and of the CD4+ subpopulation and increased the proliferation and the apoptosis of Tregs. Moreover, MSC-EV treatment increased the Treg/Teff ratio and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 concentration in culture medium. The activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an established mediator of MSC immunosuppressive effects, was increased in supernatants of PBMCs cocultured with MSCs, but was not affected by the presence of MSC-EVs. MSC-EVs demonstrate immunomodulatory effects on T cells in vitro. However, these effects and the underlying mechanisms appear to be different from those exhibited by their cells of origin

    A MALDI-TOF MS approach for mammalian, human, and formula milks’ profiling

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    Human milk composition is dynamic, and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze the peptide profiles of mammalian, human, and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS, and data were exported for statistical elaborations. The mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted in well-separated mass spectra. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although they were specifically characterized and correlated well with each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and minimization of costs, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may be useful for not only milk adulteration assessments but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in pediatric clinical settings

    IDO1 involvement in mTOR pathway: A molecular mechanism of resistance to mTOR targeting in medulloblastoma

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    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Despite therapeutic advancements, high-risk groups still present significant mortality. A deeper knowledge of the signaling pathways contributing to MB formation and aggressiveness would help develop new successful therapies. The target of rapamycin, mTOR signaling, is known to be involved in MB and is already targetable in the clinical setting. Furthermore, mTOR is a master metabolic regulator able to control cell growth versus autophagy decisions in conditions of amino-acid deprivation that can be due to IDO1 enzymatic activity. IDO1 has been also implicated in the regulation of inflammation, as well as of T cell-mediated immune responses, in a variety of pathological conditions, including brain tumors. In particular, IDO1 induces expansion of regulatory T-cells (Treg), preventing immune response against tumor cells. Analysis of 27 MB tissue specimens for the expression of both mTOR and IDO1 showed their widespread expression in all samples. Testing their cooperation in vitro, a significant involvement of IDO1 in mTOR immunogenic pathway was found, able to counteract the aim of rapamycin treatment. In MB cell lines, inhibition of mTOR strongly induced IDO1 expression and activity, corroborating its ability to recruit Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment. The mTOR/IDO1 cross talk was found to be strictly specific of MB cells. We demonstrated that mTOR pathway cross talks with IDO1 pathway to promote MB immune escape, possibly contributing to failure of mTOR- targeted therapy

    Antifungal Drugs for Invasive Candida Infections (ICI) in Neonates: Future Perspectives.

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    Fungal infections may complicate the neonatal clinical course, and the spectrum of therapies for their treatment in the perinatal period is limited. Polyenes, Azoles and Echinocandins represent the three classes of antifungal drugs commonly used in the neonatal period. The present review provides an overview about the most recent therapeutic strategies for the treatment of fungal infections in neonates

    TIM-3/Gal-9 interaction induces IFNő≥-dependent IDO1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia blast cells

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    NK cells expressing TIM-3 show a marked increase in IFNő≥ production in response to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast cells that endogenously express Gal-9. Herein, we demonstrate that NK cell-mediated production of IFNő≥, induced by TIM-3/Gal-9 interaction and released in bone marrow microenvironment, is responsible for IDO1 expression in AML blasts. IDO1-expressing AML blasts consequently down-regulate NK cell degranulation activity, by sustaining leukemia immune escape. Furthermore, the blocking of TIM-3/Gal-9 interaction strongly down-regulates IFNő≥-dependent IDO1 activity. Thus, the inhibition of TIM-3/Gal-9 immune check point, which affects NK cell-dependent IFNő≥ production and the consequent IDO1 activation, could usefully integrate current chemotherapeutic approaches. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13045-015-0134-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users