3,478 research outputs found

    The Abuse of Power: A Theological Problem

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    Reviewed Book: Poling, James N. (James Newton). The Abuse of Power: A Theological Problem. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991

    Rituals, Images and Stories: A Narrative Conversation

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    The Effects of radial inflow of gas and galactic fountains on the chemical evolution of M31

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    Galactic fountains and radial gas flows are very important ingredients in modeling the chemical evolution of galactic disks. Our aim here is to study the effects of galactic fountains and radial gas flows in the chemical evolution of the disk of M31. We adopt a ballistic method to study the effects of galactic fountains on the chemical enrichment of the M31 disk. We find that the landing coordinate for the fountains in M31 is no more than 1 kpc from the starting point, thus producing negligible effect on the chemical evolution of the disk. We find that the delay time in the enrichment process due to fountains is no longer than 100 Myr and this timescale also produces negligible effects on the results. Then, we compute the chemical evolution of the M31 disk with radial gas flows produced by the infall of extragalactic material and fountains. We find that a moderate inside-out formation of the disk coupled with radial flows of variable speed can very well reproduce the observed gradient. We discuss also the effects of other parameters such a threshold in the gas density for star formation and an efficiency of star formation varying with the galactic radius. We conclude that the most important physical processes in creating disk gradients are the inside-out formation and the radial gas flows. More data on abundance gradients both locally and at high redshift are necessary to confirm this conclusion.Comment: Accepted by A&

    Chemical evolution of the bulge of M31: predictions about abundance ratios

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    We aim at reproducing the chemical evolution of the bulge of M31 by means of a detailed chemical evolution model, including radial gas flows coming from the disk. We study the impact of the initial mass function, the star formation rate and the time scale for bulge formation on the metallicity distribution function of stars. We compute several models of chemical evolution using the metallicity distribution of dwarf stars as an observational constraint for the bulge of M31. Then, by means of the model which best reproduces the metallicity distribution function, we predict the [X/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] relations for several chemical elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, C, N). Our best model for the bulge of M31 is obtained by means of a robust statistical method and assumes a Salpeter initial mass function, a Schmidt-Kennicutt law for star formation with an exponent k=1.5, an efficiency of star formation of ∼15±0.27 Gyr−1\sim 15\pm 0.27\, Gyr^{-1}, and an infall timescale of ∼0.10±0.03\sim 0.10\pm 0.03Gyr. Our results suggest that the bulge of M31 formed very quickly by means of an intense star formation rate and an initial mass function flatter than in the solar vicinity but similar to that inferred for the Milky Way bulge. The [α\alpha/Fe] ratios in the stars of the bulge of M31 should be high for most of the [Fe/H] range, as is observed in the Milky Way bulge. These predictions await future data to be proven.Comment: Accepted for publication by MNRA

    Anisotropic renormalized fluctuations in the microwave resistivity in YBCO

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    We discuss the excess conductivity above Tc due to renormalized order-parameter fluctuations in YBCO at microwave frequencies. We calculate the effects of the uniaxial anisotropy on the renormalized fluctuations in the Hartree approximation, extending the isotropic theory developed by Dorsey [Phys. Rev. B 43, 7575 (1991)]. Measurements of the real part of the microwave resistivity at 24 and 48 GHz and of the dc resistivity are performed on different YBCO films. The onset of the superconducting transition and the deviation from the linear temperature behavior above Tc can be fully accounted for by the extended theory. According to the theoretical calculation here presented, a departure from gaussian toward renormalized fluctuations is observed. Very consistent values of the fundamental parameters (critical temperature, coherence lenghts, penetration depth) of the superconducting state are obtained.Comment: RevTex, 8 pages with 5 figures included, to be published in Physical Review

    Mixed-state microwave response in superconducting cuprates

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    We report measurements of the magnetic-field induced microwave complex resistivity in REBa2_{2}Cu3_{3}O7−δ_{7-\delta} thin films, with RE = Y, Sm. Measurements are performed at 48 GHz by means of a resonant cavity in the end-wall-replacement configuration. The magnetic field dependence is investigated by applying a moderate (0.8 T) magnetic field along the c-axis. The measured vortex state complex resistivity in YBa2_{2}Cu3_{3}O7−δ_{7-\delta} and SmBa2_{2}Cu3_{3}O7−δ_{7-\delta} is analyzed within the well-known models for vortex dynamics. It is shown that attributing the observed response to vortex motion alone leads to inconsistencies in the as-determined vortex parameters (such as the vortex viscosity and the pinning constant). By contrast, attributing the entire response to field-induced pair breaking leads to a nearly quantitative description of the data.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, to be published in J. Supercond. as proceedings of 8th HTSHFF (May 26th-29th, 2004, Begur, Spain

    Prey selection by an apex predator : the importance of sampling uncertainty.

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    The impact of predation on prey populations has long been a focus of ecologists, but a firm understanding of the factors influencing prey selection, a key predictor of that impact, remains elusive. High levels of variability observed in prey selection may reflect true differences in the ecology of different communities but might also reflect a failure to deal adequately with uncertainties in the underlying data. Indeed, our review showed that less than 10% of studies of European wolf predation accounted for sampling uncertainty. Here, we relate annual variability in wolf diet to prey availability and examine temporal patterns in prey selection; in particular, we identify how considering uncertainty alters conclusions regarding prey selection. Over nine years, we collected 1,974 wolf scats and conducted drive censuses of ungulates in Alpe di Catenaia, Italy. We bootstrapped scat and census data within years to construct confidence intervals around estimates of prey use, availability and selection. Wolf diet was dominated by boar (61.5±3.90 [SE] % of biomass eaten) and roe deer (33.7±3.61%). Temporal patterns of prey densities revealed that the proportion of roe deer in wolf diet peaked when boar densities were low, not when roe deer densities were highest. Considering only the two dominant prey types, Manly's standardized selection index using all data across years indicated selection for boar (mean = 0.73±0.023). However, sampling error resulted in wide confidence intervals around estimates of prey selection. Thus, despite considerable variation in yearly estimates, confidence intervals for all years overlapped. Failing to consider such uncertainty could lead erroneously to the assumption of differences in prey selection among years. This study highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in relative prey availability and accounting for sampling uncertainty when interpreting the results of dietary studies

    Association of mid-infrared solar plages with Calcium K line emissions and magnetic structures

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    Solar mid-IR observations in the 8-15 micrometer band continuum with moderate angular resolution (18 arcseconds) reveal the presence of bright structures surrounding sunspots. These plage-like features present good association with calcium CaII K1v plages and active region magnetograms. We describe a new optical setup with reflecting mirrors to produce solar images on the focal plane array of uncooled bolometers of a commercial camera preceded by germanium optics. First observations of a sunspot on September 11, 2006 show a mid-IR continuum plage exhibiting spatial distribution closely associated with CaII K1v line plage and magnetogram structures. The mid-IR continuum bright plage is about 140 K hotter than the neighboring photospheric regions, consistent with hot plasma confined by the magnetic spatial structures in and above the active regionComment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Accepted by PAS
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