58 research outputs found

    MODELLING THE INFLUENCE OF NUCLEUS ELASTICITY ON CELL INVASION IN FIBER NETWORKS AND MICROCHANNELS

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    Cell migration in highly constrained extracellular matrices is exploited in scaffold-based tissue engineering and is fundamental in a wide variety of physiological and pathological phenomena, among others in cancer invasion and development. Research into the critical processes involved in cell migration has mainly focused on cell adhesion and proteolytic degradation of the external environment. However, rising evidence has recently shown that a number of cell-derived biophysical and mechanical parameters, among others nucleus stiffness and cell deformability, plays a major role in cell motility, especially in the ameboid-like migration mode in 3D confined tissue structures. We here present an extended cellular Potts model (CPM) first used to simulate a micro-fabricated migration chip, which tests the active invasive behavior of cancer cells into narrow channels. As distinct features of our approach, cells are modeled as compartmentalized discrete objects, differentiated in the nucleus and in the cytosolic region, while the migration chamber is composed of channels of different widths. We find that cell motile phenotype and velocity in open spaces (i.e., 2D flat surfaces or large channels) are not significantly influenced by cell elastic properties. On the contrary, the migratory behavior of cells within subcellular and subnuclear structures strongly relies on the deformability of the cytosol and of the nuclear cluster, respectively. Further, we characterize two migration dynamics: a stepwise way, characterized by fluctuations in cell length, within channels smaller than nucleus dimensions and a smooth sliding (i.e., maintaining constant cell length) behavior within channels larger than the nuclear cluster. These resulting observations are then extended looking at cell migration in an artificial fiber network, which mimics cell invasion in a 3D extracellular matrix. In particular, in this case, we analyze the effect of variations in elasticity of the nucleus on cell movement. In order to summarize, with our simulated migration assays, we demonstrate that the dimensionality of the environment strongly affects the migration phenotype and we suggest that the cytoskeletal and nuclear elastic characteristics correlate with the tumor cell's invasive potentia

    Differentiated cell behavior: a multiscale approach using measure theory

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    This paper deals with the derivation of a collective model of cell populations out of an individual-based description of the underlying physical particle system. By looking at the spatial distribution of cells in terms of time-evolving measures, rather than at individual cell paths, we obtain an ensemble representation stemming from the phenomenological behavior of the single component cells. In particular, as a key advantage of our approach, the scale of representation of the system, i.e., microscopic/discrete vs. macroscopic/continuous, can be chosen a posteriori according only to the spatial structure given to the aforesaid measures. The paper focuses in particular on the use of different scales based on the specific functions performed by cells. A two-population hybrid system is considered, where cells with a specialized/differentiated phenotype are treated as a discrete population of point masses while unspecialized/undifferentiated cell aggregates are represented with a continuous approximation. Numerical simulations and analytical investigations emphasize the role of some biologically relevant parameters in determining the specific evolution of such a hybrid cell system.Comment: 25 pages, 6 figure

    Multiscale developments of cellular Potts models

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    Multiscale problems are ubiquitous and fundamental in all biological phenomena that emerge naturally from the complex interaction of processes which occur at various levels. A number of both discrete and continuous mathematical models and methods have been developed to address such an intricate network of organization. One of the most suitable individual cell-based model for this purpose is the well-known cellular Potts model (CPM). The CPM is a discrete, lattice-based, flexible technique that is able to accurately identify and describe the phenomenological mechanisms which are responsible for innumerable biological (and nonbiological) phenomena. In this work, we first give a brief overview of its biophysical basis and discuss its main limitations. We then propose some innovative extensions, focusing on ways of integrating the basic mesoscopic CPM with accurate continuous models of microscopic dynamics of individuals. The aim is to create a multiscale hybrid framework that is able to deal with the typical multilevel organization of biological development, where the behavior of the simulated individuals is realistically driven by their internal state. Our CPM extensions are then tested with sample applications that show a qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data. Finally, we conclude by discussing further possible developments of the metho

    A Cellular Potts Model for Analyzing Cell Migration across Constraining Pillar Arrays

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    Cell migration in highly constrained environments is fundamental in a wide variety of physiological and pathological phenomena. In particular, it has been experimentally shown that the migratory capacity of most cell lines depends on their ability to transmigrate through narrow constrictions, which in turn relies on their deformation capacity. In this respect, the nucleus, which occupies a large fraction of the cell volume and is substantially stiffer than the surrounding cytoplasm, imposes a major obstacle. This aspect has also been investigated with the use of microfluidic devices formed by dozens of arrays of aligned polymeric pillars that limit the available space for cell movement. Such experimental systems, in particular, in the designs developed by the groups of Denais and of Davidson, were here reproduced with a tailored version of the Cellular Potts model, a grid-based stochastic approach where cell dynamics are established by a Metropolis algorithm for energy minimization. The proposed model allowed quantitatively analyzing selected cell migratory determinants (e.g., the cell and nuclear speed and deformation, and forces acting at the nuclear membrane) in the case of different experimental setups. Most of the numerical results show a remarkable agreement with the corresponding empirical data

    A node-based version of the cellular Potts model

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    The cellular Potts model (CPM) is a lattice-based Monte Carlo method that uses an energetic formalism to describe the phenomenological mechanisms underlying the biophysical problem of interest. We here propose a CPM-derived framework that relies on a node-based representation of cell-scale elements. This feature has relevant consequences on the overall simulation environment. First, our model can be implemented on any given domain, provided a proper discretization (which can be regular or irregular, fixed or time evolving). Then, it allowed an explicit representation of cell membranes, whose displacements realistically result in cell movement. Finally, our node-based approach can be easily interfaced with continuous mechanics or fluid dynamics models. The proposed computational environment is here applied to some simple biological phenomena, such as cell sorting and chemotactic migration, also in order to achieve an analysis of the performance of the underlying algorithm. This work is finally equipped with a critical comparison between the advantages and disadvantages of our model with respect to the traditional CPM and to some similar vertex-based approaches

    MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY OF CALCIUM SIGNALING: MODELING ANGIOGENESIS

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    Intracellular calcium signaling is a universal, evolutionary conserved and versatile regulator of cell biochemistry. The complexity of calcium signaling and related cell machinery can be investigated by the use of experimental strategies, as well as by computational approaches. Vascular endothelium is a fascinating model to study the specific properties and roles of calcium signals at multiple biological levels. During the past 20 years, live cell imaging, patch clamp and other techniques have allowed us to detect and interfere with calcium signaling in endothelial cells (ECs), providing a huge amount of information on the regulation of vascularization (angiogenesis) in normal and tumoral tissues. These data range from the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium within difffferent cell microcompartments to those in entire multicellular and organized EC networks. Beside experimental strategies, in silico endothelial models, specifically designed for simulating calcium signaling, are contributing to our knowledge of vascular physiology and pathology. They help to investigate and predict the quantitative features of proangiogenic events moving through subcellular, cellular and supracellular levels. This review focuses on some recent developments of computational approaches for proangiogenic endothelial calcium signaling. In particular, we discuss the creation of hybrid simulation environments, which combine and integrate discrete Cellular Potts Models. They are able to capture the phenomenological mechanisms of cell morphological reorganization, migration, and intercellular adhesion, with single-cell spatiotemporal models, based on reaction-diffffusion equations that describe the agonist-induced intracellular calcium events

    An agent-based approach for modelling collective dynamics in animal groups distinguishing individual speed and orientation: Particle model for animal group dynamics

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    Collective dynamics in animal groups is a challenging theme for the model- ling community, being treated with a wide range of approaches. This topic is here tackled by a discrete model. Entering in more details, each agent, rep- resented by a material point, is assumed to move following a first-order Newtonian law, which distinguishes speed and orientation. In particular, the latter results from the balance of a given set of behavioural stimuli, each of them defined by a direction and a weight, that quantifies its relative importance. A constraint on the sum of the weights then avoids implausible simultaneous maximization/minimization of all movement traits. Our framework is based on a minimal set of rules and parameters and is able to capture and classify a number of collective group dynamics emerging from different individual preferred behaviour, which possibly includes attrac- tive, repulsive and alignment stimuli. In the case of a system of animals subjected only to the first two behavioural inputs, we also show how analytical arguments allow us to a priori relate the equilibrium interparticle spacing to critical model coefficients. Our approach is then extended to account for the presence of predators with different hunting strategies, which impact on the behaviour of a prey population. Hints for model refinement and applications are finally given in the conclusive part of the article

    Relevance of cell-ECM interactions: From a biological perspective to the mathematical modeling

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    Cell migration across fibre networks and micro-channel structures has been widely demonstrated to be strongly influenced by the interactions between moving individuals and the surrounding extracellular matrix as well as by the mechanical properties of cell nucleus. In this respect, our work will be devoted to describe several mathematical models, which deal either with cell adhesion mechanics or with suitable analysis of the role played in cell movement by nucleus stiffness. In particular, the presented approaches span from discrete individual-based methods to continuous models and provide useful insights into selected determinant underlying cell migration within two- and three-dimensional matrix environments

    A cellular Potts model analyzing differentiated cell behavior during in vivo vascularization of a hypoxic tissue

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    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessel networks from existing capillary or post-capillary venules, is an intrinsically multiscale process occurring in several physio-pathological conditions. In particular, hypoxic tissue cells activate downstream cascades culminating in the secretion of a wide range of angiogenic factors, including VEGF isoforms. Such diffusive chemicals activate the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the external walls of the nearby vessels that chemotactically migrate toward the hypoxic areas of the tissue as multicellular sprouts. A functional network eventually emerges by further branching and anastomosis processes. We here propose a CPM-based approach reproducing selected features of the angiogenic progression necessary for the reoxygenation of a hypoxic tissue. Our model is able to span the different scale involved in the angiogenic progression as it incorporates reaction-diffusion equations for the description of the evolution of microenvironmental variables in a discrete mesoscopic cellular Potts model (CPM) that reproduces the dynamics of the vascular cells. A key feature of this work is the explicit phenotypic differentiation of the ECs themselves, distinguished in quiescent, stalk and tip. The simulation results allow identifying a set of key mechanisms underlying tissue vascularization. Further, we provide evidence that the nascent pattern is characterized by precise topological properties. Finally, we link abnormal sprouting angiogenesis with alteration in selected cell behavior

    Modelling Cell Orientation Under Stretch: The Effect of Substrate Elasticity

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    When cells are seeded on a cyclically deformed substrate like silicon, they tend to reorient their major axis in two ways: either perpendicular to the main stretching direction, or forming an oblique angle with it. However, when the substrate is very soft such as a collagen gel, the oblique orientation is no longer observed, and the cells align either along the stretching direction, or perpendicularly to it. To explain this switch, we propose a simplified model of the cell, consisting of two elastic elements representing the stress fiber/focal adhesion complexes in the main and transverse directions. These elements are connected by a torsional spring that mimics the effect of crosslinking molecules among the stress fibers, which resist shear forces. Our model, consistent with experimental observations, predicts that there is a switch in the asymptotic behaviour of the orientation of the cell determined by the stiffness of the substratum, related to a change from a supercritical bifurcation scenario, whereby the oblique configuration is stable for a sufficiently large stiffness, to a subcritical bifurcation scenario at a lower stiffness. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of cell elongation and find that the region of the parameter space leading to an oblique orientation decreases as the cell becomes more elongated. This implies that elongated cells, such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, are more likely to maintain an oblique orientation with respect to the main stretching direction. Conversely, rounder cells, such as those of epithelial or endothelial origin, are more likely to switch to a perpendicular or parallel orientation on soft substrates
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