140 research outputs found

    Correlation between Choriocapillaris Density and Retinal Sensitivity in Stargardt Disease

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    The aim of this work was to characterize the choriocapillaris (CC) in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD) using the swept source widefield optical coherence tomography angiography (SS WF OCTA) and to compare CC perfusion density to retinal sensitivity, analyzed using microperimetry (MP). This cross-sectional study included 9 patients (18 eyes) with STGD and central CC atrophy (stage 3 STGD). The CC was analyzed using SS WF OCTA and areas of different CC impairment were quantified and correlated with retinal sensitivity analyzed using MP. The main outcome measures were the percent perfused choriocapillaris area (PPCA), retinal sensitivity, and correlation between PPCA and retinal sensitivity. Seventeen eyes of 9 patients suffering from stage 3 STGD were analyzed. SS WF OCTA revealed a vascular rarefaction in central atrophic zones and a near atrophy halo of choriocapillaris impairment. In all eyes were noticed a central atrophy (CA) area with absolute absence of CC that corresponded to 0 dB points at MP, a near atrophy (NA) zone of PPCA impairment that included points with decreased sensitivity at MP and a distant from atrophy (DA) zone with higher PPCA and retinal sensitivity values. The mean difference of PPCA and retinal sensitivity between NA and CA and DA and CA was statistical significantly different (p < 0.01), the latter showing higher values. A direct relationship between PPCA and retinal sensitivity was found (p < 0.001). Choriocapillaris damage evaluated using SS WF OCTA correlates with MP, these data suggest that CC impairment may be a predictor of retinal function in patients with STGD

    Leydig Cell Tumor in a 53-Year-Old Patient with Gynecomastia and Gynecodynia: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Introduction: Testicular cancer is a rare neoplasm that afflicts men particularly in specific age-range. 5% to 6% of these tumors are non-germ cell tumors, in which Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are included. Case Presentation: This case report describes an uncommon presentation of a Leydig tumor cell in a 53 year old man with gynecomastia and gynecodynia Conclusions: LCT is a rare neoplasm of the testis; its origin is still unknown and it could also present out of the normal range-age with the highest incidence. The radical surgery is still preferred, even if an organ sparing approach is reported. There are a lot of reports and case series in literature about LCT's but our work focus the attention of uncommon signs of presentation of this disease, expecially gynecodynia

    Resection Techniques During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review

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    CONTEXT: The resection technique used to excise tumor during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is of paramount importance in achieving optimal clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the different resection techniques used during RPN, and a pooled analysis of comparative studies. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The systematic review was conducted according to established principles (PROSPERO: CRD42022371640) on November 7, 2022. A population (P: adult patients undergoing RPN), intervention (I: enucleation), comparator (C: enucleoresection or wedge resection), outcome (O: outcome measurements of interest), and study design (S) framework was prespecified to assess study eligibility. Studies reporting a detailed description of resection techniques and/or evaluating the impact of resection technique on outcomes of surgery were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Resection techniques used during RPN can be broadly classified as resection (non-anatomic) or enucleation (anatomic). A standardized definition for these is lacking. Out of 20 studies retrieved, nine compared "standard" resection versus enucleation. A pooled analysis did not reveal significant differences in terms of operative time, ischemia time, blood loss, transfusions, or positive margins. Significant differences favoring enucleation were found for clamping management (odds ratio [OR] for renal artery clamping 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-10.88; p = 0.03), overall complications (OR for occurrence 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.87; p = 0.01) major complications (OR for occurrence 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.009), length of stay (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.72 d, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.45; p < 0.001), and decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (WMD -2.64 ml/min, 95% CI -5.15 to -0.12; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: There is heterogeneity in the reporting of resection techniques used during RPN. The urological community must improve the quality of reporting and research produced accordingly. Positive margins are not specifically related to the resection technique. Focusing on studies comparing standard resection versus enucleation, advantages with tumor enucleation in terms of avoidance of artery clamping, overall/major complications, length of stay, and renal function were found. These data should be considered when planning the RPN resection strategy. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed studies on robotic surgery for partial kidney removal using different techniques to cut away the kidney tumor. We found that a technique called "enucleation" was associated with similar cancer control outcomes in comparison to the standard technique and had fewer complications, better kidney function after surgery, and a shorter hospital stay

    Molecular Imaging Diagnosis of Renal Cancer Using 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT and Girentuximab PET-CT-Current Evidence and Future Development of Novel Techniques

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    : Novel molecular imaging opportunities to preoperatively diagnose renal cell carcinoma is under development and will add more value in limiting the postoperative renal function loss and morbidity. We aimed to comprehensively review the research on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) molecular imaging and to enhance the urologists' and radiologists' knowledge of the current research pattern. We identified an increase in prospective and also retrospective studies that researched to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and between different clear cell renal cell carcinoma subtypes, with small numbers of patients studied, nonetheless with excellent results on specificity, sensitivity and accuracy, especially for 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT that delivers quick results compared to a long acquisition time for girentuximab PET-CT, which instead gives better image quality. Nuclear medicine has helped clinicians in evaluating primary and secondary lesions, and has lately returned with new and exciting insights with novel radiotracers to reinforce its diagnostic potential in renal carcinoma. To further limit the renal function loss and post-surgery morbidity, future research is mandatory to validate the results and to clinically implement the diagnostic techniques in the context of precision medicine

    Retroperitoneal extension of massive ulcerated testicular seminoma through the inguinal canal: A case report.

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    Introduction: Testicular cancers represent about 5% of all urological malignancies and 1-1.5% of all male neoplasms. Most of the testicular cancers are localized (68%) at diagnosis. Bulky masses in the scrotum are rare. We present a rare case of bulky testicular cancer with retroperitoneal spread through the inguinal canal. Case report: A 44-year-old man came to the emergency department referring weakness and the presence of a scrotal mass. At physical examination, a voluminous mass was found, with necrotic phenomena within the scrotum. Abdomen was tense and sore. Abdominal CT scan revealed a bulky testicular mass spreading to the retroperitoneal space through the inguinal canal with node enlargement. Patient underwent orchiectomy with excision of infiltrated scrotum skin. Histologic diagnosis confirmed a typical form seminoma. The patient was then treated with a cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with a partial response. The patient recently relapsed and he is being treated with a new line of chemotherapy and subsequent surgery with or without radiotherapy. Conclusions: We described a rare presentation of testicular cancer. This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to rare testis tumour presentation and early diagnosis for testicular cancers

    Efficacy and safety of intravesical fibrin glue instillation for management of patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis: 12-months results. A promising therapy for hemorrhagic cystitis.

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    Objectives: Fibrin glue (FG) endo-vesical application seems to be a promising therapy for hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of FG instillation in patients with HC. Methods: Patients with HC not responsive to conventional treatments (bladder irrigation, catheterization, blood transfusions, hyperhydration and endoscopic coagulation) were treated with FG endo-vesical instillation (April 2017- December 2018). FG was prepared from 120 mL of patient blood with the Vivostat¬ģ system. After standard cystoscopy, bladder was insufflated with carbon dioxide (CO2) according to bladder compliance and autologous FG was applied to bladder wall and bleeding sites. Results: Ten patients included with grade 2 or higher HC secondary to bone marrow graft for hematological diseases (30%) or to actinic cystitis caused by prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) (70%). The median HC onset time after RT was 4.8 (IQR 3.9- 6.3) years and 35 (IQR 27.5-62.5) days after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had a complete response after one treatment, three patients had clinical response (grade < 2 hematuria, amelioration of symptoms), one of them required catheterization and bladder irrigation. One patient required a second instillation of FG achieving a clinical response. No adverse events related to the procedure were recorded, however one patient died for causes not related to the procedure. Median Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index was 13.0 (IQR 11.0-15.0) pre-operatively and 4.0 (IQR 2.0-5.0) post-operatively. Conclusions: Our study showed that, even in hematological patients, autologous FG instillation maybe a safe, repeatable and effective treatment modality in patients with refractory HC

    Single-port robotic partial nephrectomy: impact on perioperative outcomes and hospital stay

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    Single-port (SP) robotic surgery is a novel technology and is at the beginning of its adoption curve in urology. The goal of this narrative review is to provide an overview of SP-robotic partial nephrectomy (PN) 4 years after the introduction of the da Vinci SP dedicated platform, focusing on perioperative outcomes, length of stay, and surgical technique. A nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted. The research included the most updated articles that referred to SP robotic PN. Since its commercial release in 2018, several institutions have reproduced robotic PN by using the SP platform, both via a transperitoneal and a retroperitoneal approach. The published SP-robotic PN series are generally based on preliminary experiences by surgeons who had previous experience with conventional multi-arms robotic platforms. The reported outcomes are encouraging. Overall, three studies reported that SP-robotic PN cases had nonsignificantly different operative time, estimated blood loss, overall complications rate, and length of stay compared to the conventional 'multi-arms' robotic PN. However, in all these series, renal masses treated by SP had overall lower complexity. Moreover, two studies underlined decreased postoperative pain as a major pro of adopting the SP system. This should reduce/avoid the need for opioids after surgery. No study compared SP-robotic versus multi-arms robotic PN in cost-effectiveness. Published experience with SP-robotic PN has reported the feasibility and safety of the approach. Preliminary results are encouraging and at least noninferior with respect to those from the multi-arms series. Prospective comparative studies with long-term oncologic and functional results are awaited to draw more definitive conclusions and better establish the more appropriate indications of SP robotics in the field of PN
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