116 research outputs found

    Ten years since the last Chikungunya virus outbreak in Italy. History repeats itself

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    The prevalence of Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections is increasing worldwide. Recently, new clusters of autochthonous cases have been reported in countries with temperate climates where the competent vector is present. This scenario represents a new threat for transfusion medicine.CHIKV has been a significant public health concern in Asian and African countries, where most epidemics occurred in the 1960s and 1990s, and is newly emerging in Middle East, Pacific, American, and European countries. Exactly 10 years after the first European outbreak of CHIKV, the virus has emerged again in Italy where the competent vector (Aedes albopictus) is present

    Safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid for prevention of obstetric haemorrhage. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background. A number of clinical systematic review and meta-analysis have been published on the use of tranexamic in the obstetric setting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss when given prior to caesarean delivery. Materials and methods. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialized Register, Cochrane Central, MEDLINE (through PUBMED), Embase, and SCOPUS electronic databases. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and checked reference lists to identify additional studies. We used no restrictions with respect to language and date of publication. Two review authors independently performed study selection, "Risk of bias" assessment, and data extraction. Initial disagreements were resolved by discussion, or by including a third review author when necessary. Results. We found 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 1,764 women receiving intravenous tranexamic acid for prevention of bleeding following caesarean sections and 1,793 controls receiving placebo were enrolled in the 18 RCTs evaluated. The use of tranexamic acid compared to controls (placebo or no intervention) reduces post-partum haemorrhage >400 mL (risk ratio [RR] 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.65; 5 trials with a total of 786 participants), severe post-partum haemorrhage >1,000 mL (RR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84; 5 trials with a total of 1,850 participants), and need for red blood cell transfusion (RR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.49; 10 trials with a total of 1,873 participants). No particular safety concerns on the use of this antifibrinolytic agent emerged from the analysis of the 18 RCTs included. Discussion. Overall, the results of this meta-analysis support the evidence of a beneficial effect of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and need for blood transfusion in pregnant women undergoing caesarean section

    The use of viscoelastic haemostatic assays in non-cardiac surgical settings. a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Thrombelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are viscoelastic haemostatic assays (VHA) which exploit the elastic properties of clotting blood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the usefulness of these tests in bleeding patients outside the cardiac surgical setting. Materials and methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS. We also searched clinical trial registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and checked reference lists to identify additional studies. Results: We found 4 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met our inclusion criteria with a total of 229 participants. The sample size was small (from 28 to 111 patients) and the follow-up periods very heterogenous (from 4 weeks to 3 years). Pooled data from the 3 trials reporting on mortality (199 participants) do not show any effect of the use of TEG on mortality as compared to standard monitoring (based on the average treatment effect from a fixed-effects model): Risk Ratio (RR) 0.71; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.43 to 1.16. Likewise, the use of VHA does not reduce the need for red blood cells (mean difference -0.64; 95% CI: -1.51 to 0.23), platelet concentrates (mean difference -1.12; 95% CI: -3.25 to 1.02), and fresh frozen plasma (mean difference -0.91; 95% CI: -2.02 to 0.19) transfusion. The evidence on mortality and other outcomes was uncertain (very low-certainty evidence, down-graded due to risk of biases, imprecision, and inconsistency). Conclusions: Overall, the certainty of the evidence provided by the trials was too low for us to be certain of the benefits and harms of viscoelastic haemostatic assay in non-cardiac surgical settings. More, larger, and better-designed RCTs should be carried out in this area

    COVID-19: When dust mites and lockdown create the perfect storm

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    The aim of the present study was to understand if the course of the disease of patients suffering from dust mite allergy could have been negatively affected by the COVID-19 restrictions, which have been certainly important to fight the pandemic, but forced patients to stay at home for a long time
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