71 research outputs found

    Daptomycin approved in Japan for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Get PDF
    Daptomycin is a lipoglycopeptide antibacterial drug that is rapidly bactericidal for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and has antibiotic activity against a wide range of Gram-positive organisms. It has been approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan for the treatment for bacteremia, right-sided endocarditis, and skin and skin-structure infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, due to MRSA on the basis of a Phase III trial conducted in Japan since July, 2011. In Japanese Phase I and III trials, daptomycin therapy given at 4 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg once per day was well tolerated and effective as standard therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections and bacteremia caused by MRSA, but side effects remain to be evaluated in large-scale trials

    In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of β-Lactams/Nacubactam against Carbapenem-Resistant and/or Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Murine Pneumonia Model

    No full text
    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) have become global threats. CRE− and CPE− derived infections have been associated with high mortality due to limited treatment options. Nacubactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor and belongs to the new class of diazabicyclooctane. The agent has an in vitro antimicrobial activity against several classes of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales. This study evaluated antimicrobial activity of combination therapies including β-lactams (aztreonam, cefepime, and meropenem) and nacubactam against four Enterobacter cloacae and six Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with murine pneumonia model. Based on changes in bacterial quantity, antimicrobial activities of some regimens were assessed. Combination therapies including β-lactams (aztreonam, cefepime, and meropenem) with nacubactam showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against CRE E. cloacae (−3.70 to −2.08 Δlog10 CFU/lungs) and K. pneumoniae (−4.24 to 1.47 Δlog10 CFU/lungs) with IMP-1, IMP-6, or KPC genes, compared with aztreonam, cefepime, meropenem, and nacubactam monotherapies. Most combination therapies showed bacteriostatic (−3.0 to 0 Δlog10 CFU/lungs) to bactericidal (<−3.0 Δlog10 CFU/lungs) activities against CRE isolates. This study revealed that combination regimens with β-lactams (aztreonam, cefepime, and meropenem) and nacubactam are preferable candidates to treat pneumonia due to CRE and CPE

    Effect of Clostridium butyricum on Gastrointestinal Infections

    No full text
    Clostridium butyricum is a human commensal bacterium with beneficial effects including butyrate production, spore formation, increasing levels of beneficial bacteria, and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria. Owing to its preventive and ameliorative effects on gastrointestinal infections, C. butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (CBM 588) has been used as a probiotic in clinical and veterinary medicine for decades. This review summarizes the effects of C. butyricum, including CBM 588, on bacterial gastrointestinal infections. Further, the characteristics of the causative bacteria, examples of clinical and veterinary use, and mechanisms exploited in basic research are presented. C. butyricum is widely effective against Clostoridioides difficile, the causative pathogen of nosocomial infections; Helicobacter pylori, the causative pathogen of gastric cancer; and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. Accordingly, its mechanism is gradually being elucidated. As C. butyricum is effective against gastrointestinal infections caused by antibiotics-induced dysbiosis, it can inhibit the transmission of antibiotic-resistant genes and maintain homeostasis of the gut microbiome. Altogether, C. butyricum is expected to be one of the antimicrobial-resistance (AMR) countermeasures for the One-health approach

    Efficacy of Combination Therapies for the Treatment of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections Based on Meta-Analyses

    No full text
    There is increasing evidence regarding the optimal therapeutic strategies for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria that cause common infections and are resistant to existing antibiotics. Combination therapies, such as β-lactam combined with β-lactamase inhibitors or combination antibiotics, is a therapeutic strategy to overcome MDR bacteria. In recent years, the therapeutic options have expanded as certain combination drugs have been approved in more countries. However, only a handful of guidelines support these options, and the recommendations are based on low-quality evidence. This review describes the significance and efficacy of combination therapy as a therapeutic strategy against Gram-negative MDR pathogens based on previously reported meta-analyses

    A Retrospective Study to Compare the Incidence of Hyponatremia after Administration between Linezolid and Tedizolid

    No full text
    Linezolid (LZD) and Tedizolid (TZD) are oxazolidinone antibiotic for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Severe hyponatremia after LZD administration have been reported. Severe hyponatremia cause seizures, unconsciousness, and even death. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the change of serum sodium level after LZD and TZD therapy. We enrolled 67 patients treated with LZD and 28 treated with TZD. We monitored the serum sodium level from the administration to 14 days after administration of oxazolidinone drug. Hyponatremia was defined a sodiuln level ≤134 mmol/L after the initiation of oxazolidinone drug. The frequency of hyponatremia in the LZD group was significantly higher than that in the TZD group (39.7% vs. 11.1%, p p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the albumin level before the oxazolidinone drug therapy as the independent variables associated with the development of hyponatremia. We revealed that TZD is safer than LZD in terms of hyponatremia. Therefore, cases that LZD is administered by injection should be used more carefully with hyponatremia in patients with low albumin level

    A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of Azithromycin Versus Moxifloxacin for the Initial Treatment of <i>Mycoplasma genitalium</i> Infection

    No full text
    Mycoplasma genitalium is recognized as a remarkable pathogen since azithromycin-resistant strains and treatment failure have been increasingly reported. Nevertheless, international guidelines still recommend azithromycin as a first-line treatment and moxifloxacin as a second-line treatment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to validate the efficacy and safety of both drugs in the initial treatment of M. genitalium. We systematically searched the EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, Ichushi, and CINAHL databases up to December 2021. We defined efficacy as clinical and microbiologic cure, and safety as persistent diarrhea. Overall, four studies met the inclusion criteria: one showed clinical cure (azithromycin treatment, n = 32; moxifloxacin treatment, n = 6), four showed microbiologic cure (n = 516; n = 99), and one showed safety (n = 63; n = 84). Moxifloxacin improved the microbiologic cure rate compared with azithromycin (odds ratio [OR] 2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–7.35). Clinical cure and safety did not show a significant difference between azithromycin and moxifloxacin treatments (OR 4.51, 95% CI 0.23–88.3; OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.21–1.83). Our meta-analysis showed that moxifloxacin was more effective than azithromycin at eradicating M. genitalium infections and supports its preferential use as a first-line treatment

    A Retrospective Study to Compare the Incidence of Hyponatremia after Administration between Linezolid and Tedizolid

    No full text
    Linezolid (LZD) and Tedizolid (TZD) are oxazolidinone antibiotic for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Severe hyponatremia after LZD administration have been reported. Severe hyponatremia cause seizures, unconsciousness, and even death. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the change of serum sodium level after LZD and TZD therapy. We enrolled 67 patients treated with LZD and 28 treated with TZD. We monitored the serum sodium level from the administration to 14 days after administration of oxazolidinone drug. Hyponatremia was defined a sodiuln level &le;134 mmol/L after the initiation of oxazolidinone drug. The frequency of hyponatremia in the LZD group was significantly higher than that in the TZD group (39.7% vs. 11.1%, p &lt; 0.05). The rate of patients administered by injection was significantly higher than in the LZD group than in the TZD group (52.9% vs. 14.8%, p &lt; 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the albumin level before the oxazolidinone drug therapy as the independent variables associated with the development of hyponatremia. We revealed that TZD is safer than LZD in terms of hyponatremia. Therefore, cases that LZD is administered by injection should be used more carefully with hyponatremia in patients with low albumin level
    corecore