23 research outputs found

    Impact of Strategies in Handling the Difficulties of Idioms

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    Present study tries to explore difficulties while learning English language and specifically idiomatic language. It aims to find the different categories of the idioms which create difficulty and also suggests some strategies which are helpful in comprehension of idioms. This study also finds out the different variables that causes difficulty in learning idioms. As [1] described idioms as metaphorical aspects and delineate different processes while learning idioms. Furthermore, this paper is also determined to describe different strategies for successful learning of idiomatic phrases of second language. All the necessary information for this study and opinions of students about using different strategies for learning idioms in narrative at graduation level was obtained through a questionnaire. The questionnaire based on rating scale model. Data analyzed in the form of frequency distribution, percentage mean score and standard deviation by using SPSS software. The study is designed to know the impact of different strategies of learning idioms for second language learners

    Global Perspectives of Intensive Animal Farming & Its Applications

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    Agricultural farming outputs are dependent upon the production type because different farming systems create different products. Intensive animal farming is widely used for the production of products that have societal importance, including meat, milk, wool, leather, fur, eggs, and honey. To ensure their timely production with limited cost, advanced technological processes, and chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers in large amount) are carried out in this intensive factory farming. Amongst animal farming, the livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector. The global shift toward intensive animal farming for high productivity yield has rendered a negative impact on the environment and biodiversity and is now an alarming sign for global warming. It has also resulted in soil, water, and air pollution due to the emission of greenhouse gases from the waste generated by these animals. Rapid use of antimicrobials in these farming systems has led to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. Therefore, an integrated and comprehensive approach covering the nonmarket outputs of the farming system is required for monitoring these global trends

    Myopia and Digit Ratio in Medical College Students - A Gender Based Evidence

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    Objectives: To measure digit ratios in male and female medical students and compare their relationship with myopia. Study Design: crosssectional study. Place and duration of study: February to September 2016, at Foundation University Medical College. Materials and methodology: Convenient sampling technique was used and 150 students filled a structured questionnaire after giving written informed consent. Students with past history of eye surgery or trauma were excluded. Prescriptions of students were noted for the myopia, and digit lengths measured on a computer via Adobe Photoshop after taking photographs of both hands on scanner and analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 141 completed questionnaires revealed that 90 students were myopic (63.8 %), of which 39 were males (27.7%) and 51 females (36.2%). Myopic males had larger digit ratios (Right, left and mean) as compared to non-myopic males, whereas myopic females had lower digit ratios as compared to non-myopic females. However a 2 tailed t- test showed significance between right hand digit ratio of male myopes and non-myopes only. Females showed no significance. Pearson’s correlation showed positive correlation of digit ratios and refractive errors in males but negative in females, however it was not significant. Conclusion: Myopia was prevalent in majority of student sample. There were significant differences between the digit ratios of males and females, and right hand digit ratios of males were significantly higher in myopes compared to non myopes. However, Pearson’s correlation was not found significant

    Perception and Facts Regarding Electroconvulsive Therapy at Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi

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    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a treatment method based on the induction of a generalized convulsion in patients after stimulation of the brain tissue with an electric current. ECT is widely used in United States as endorsed by American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2009) and has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for certain psychiatric disorders (APA, 2001). ECT is demonstrated to have a property of mood stabilization that is considered superior to pharmacotherapy in the management of several psychiatric disorders such as depressive episode, manic episode as well as mixed episode in bipolar affective disorder (Medda, Tony & Perugi, 2014). Administration of ECT provides a quick therapeutic response as compared to psychotropic medications. Neuroplastic changes are visible even after a single electroconvulsive stimulation (Sadock & Ruiz, 2009). About each neurotransmitter system is influenced by ECT comprising serotonergic, muscarinic, adrenergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic systems (Anttila et al., 2008).   Administration of ECT Appropriate equipment to monitor vital signs of the patient and to provide initial medical emergency cover are available at the areas of ECT treatment and recovery. Any optimal site of treatment has separate facilities of waiting area to have ECT done, treatment area where ECT is conducted and recovery area where post-treatment monitoring is done (APA, 2001). Some important equipment includes stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, pulse oximetry, electrocardiographic device and system of oxygen delivery in the vicinity of treatment area where ECT is delivered (McCall, Andrade & Sienaert, 2014). None of the patients is treated with ECT without his or her written informed consent that includes the understanding of patient about the process and effectiveness of ECT as well as his or her commitment on compliance (Mankad, 2015). Besides the informed consent, vital stability and fundoscopy of the patient are some of the prerequisites to be ensured before the administration of ECT.   Previous research indicates that a combination of ECT and the maintenance medication is highly effective as compared to medication alone (McCall, 2018). For the treatment of residual symptoms of the patient, to help him or her cope with stress effectively and to encourage the patient to return to his or her normal life, psychotherapy is quite helpful including individual therapy, family therapy or group therapy (Sackeim, 2001).     Mechanism of ECT The treatment of certain psychiatric disorders by using Electroconvulsive Therapy was introduced in 1938 for the first time (UKECTRG, 2003). Since then, it has been considered as an effective treatment for certain psychiatric disorders (Pagnin et al, 2004) as evidenced by extensive research (Kho et al, 2003). Ladislas Meduna is recognized as the inventor of ECT (Meduna, 1935). During the course of ECT, certain changes in chemical composition of the brain takes place that helps in treatment of certain psychiatric disorders (Meduna, 1936). Many theories regarding the mechanism of ECT has been devised over 75 years of research on ECT (Rasmussen, 2009). In a study of 1979, these theories about mechanism of action in ECT were categorized into structural, psychological, electrophysiological and biochemical domains (Fink, 1979). Recent concept about mechanism of ECT include advanced technologies to investigate morphological changes at cellular level termed as ‘neuroplasticity’ for animal studies and ‘neural connectivity’ for human studies (Bouckaert, 2014).   &nbsp