11 research outputs found

    Cognitive remediation therapy for patients with bipolar disorder: a randomised proof-of-concept trial

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    Objectives: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) may benefit people with bipolar disorder type I and II for whom cognitive impairment is a major contributor to disability. Extensive research has demonstrated CRT to improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in people with different diagnoses, but randomised trials of evidenced therapy programmes are lacking for bipolar disorders. The Cognitive Remediation in Bipolar (CRiB) study aimed to determine whether an established CRT programme is feasible and acceptable for people with bipolar disorders. Methods: This proof‐of‐concept, single‐blind randomised trial recruited participants aged 18‐65 with bipolar disorder, not currently experiencing an episode. They were 1:1 block randomised to treatment‐as‐usual (TAU) with or without individual CRT for 12 weeks. The partly computerised CRT programme (“CIRCuiTS”) was therapist‐led and is evidence‐based from trials in those with psychotic illnesses. Data were collected and analysed by investigators blinded to group allocation. The main outcomes (week 13 and 25) examined participant retention, intervention feasibility and putative effects of CRT on cognitive and psychosocial functioning via intention‐to‐treat analyses. Trial registration: ISRCTN ID32290525. Results: Sixty participants were recruited (02/2016‐06/2018) and randomised to CRT (n = 29) or TAU (n = 31). Trial withdrawals were equivalent (CRT n = 2/29; TAU n = 5/31). CRT satisfaction indicated high acceptability. Intention‐to‐treat analyses (N = 60) demonstrated greater improvements for CRT‐ than TAU‐randomised participants: at both week 13 and 25, CIRCuiTS participants showed larger improvements in the following domains (week 25 effect sizes reported here): IQ (SES = 0.71, 95% CI [0.29,1.13]), working memory (SES = 0.70, 95% CI [0.31,1.10]), executive function (SES = 0.93, 95% CI [0.33,1.54]), psychosocial functioning (SES = 0.49, 95% CI [0.18,0.80]) and goal attainment (SES = 2.02, 95% CI [0.89,3.14]). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: CRT is feasible for individuals with bipolar disorders and may enhance cognition and functioning. The reported effect sizes from this proof‐of‐concept trial encourage further investigation in a definitive trial

    Unipolar mania: identification and characterisation of cases in France and the United Kingdom

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    Background: Unipolar mania is a putative subtype of bipolar disorder (BD) in which individuals experience recurrent manic but not major depressive episodes. Few studies of unipolar mania have been conducted in developed countries and none in the UK. This study aimed to identify and characterise people with unipolar mania in the UK and France. Methods: People with unipolar mania were ascertained using a South London UK electronic case register and a French BD case series. Each unipolar mania group was compared to a matched group of people with BD who have experienced depressive episodes. Results: 17 people with unipolar mania were identified in South London and 13 in France. The frequency of unipolar mania as a percentage of the BD clinical population was 1.2% for the South London cohort and 3.3% for the French cohort. In both cohorts, people with unipolar mania experienced more manic episodes than people with BD, and in the French cohort were more likely to experience a psychotic illness onset and more psychiatric admissions. Treatment characteristics of people with unipolar mania were similar to people with BD except that the unipolar mania group was less likely to be treated with antidepressants. Limitations: The relatively small number of people with unipolar mania identified by this study limits its power to detect differences in clinical variables. Conclusions: People with unipolar mania can be identified in France and the UK, and they may experience a higher frequency of manic episodes but have similar treatment characteristics to people with BD

    Unipolar mania: Identification and characterisation of cases in France and the United Kingdom

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    International audienceBackground: Unipolar mania is a putative subtype of bipolar disorder (BD) in which individuals experience recurrent manic but not major depressive episodes. Few studies of unipolar mania have been conducted in developed countries and none in the UK. This study aimed to identify and characterise people with unipolar mania in the UK and France.Methods: People with unipolar mania were ascertained using a South London UK electronic case register and a French BD case series. Each unipolar mania group was compared to a matched group of people with BD who have experienced depressive episodes.Results: 17 people with unipolar mania were identified in South London and 13 in France. The frequency of unipolar mania as a percentage of the BD clinical population was 1.2% for the South London cohort and 3.3% for the French cohort. In both cohorts, people with unipolar mania experienced more manic episodes than people with BD, and in the French cohort were more likely to experience a psychotic illness onset and more psychiatric admissions. Treatment and self-harm characteristics of people with unipolar mania were similar to people with BD.Limitations: The relatively small number of people with unipolar mania identified by this study limits its power to detect differences in clinical variables.Conclusions: People with unipolar mania can be identified in France and the UK, and they may experience a higher frequency of manic episodes but have similar treatment and self-harm characteristics as people with BD

    Psilocybin for dementia prevention?:The potential role of psilocybin to alter mechanisms associated with major depression and neurodegenerative diseases

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    Major depression is an established risk factor for subsequent dementia, and depression in late life may also represent a prodromal state of dementia. Considering current challenges in the clinical development of disease modifying therapies for dementia, the focus of research is shifting towards prevention and modification of risk factors to alter the neurodegenerative disease trajectory. Understanding mechanistic commonalities underlying affective symptoms and cognitive decline may reveal biomarkers to aid early identification of those at risk of progressing to dementia during the preclinical phase of disease, thus allowing for timely intervention. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is a phenomenon that describes the birth of new neurons in the dentate gyrus throughout life and it is associated with spatial learning, memory and mood regulation. Microglia are innate immune system macrophages in the central nervous system that carefully regulate AHN via multiple mechanisms. Disruption in AHN is associated with both dementia and major depression and microgliosis is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that psychedelics promote neuroplasticity, including neurogenesis, and may also be immunomodulatory. In this context, psilocybin, a serotonergic agonist with rapid-acting antidepressant properties has the potential to ameliorate intersecting pathophysiological processes relevant for both major depression and neurodegenerative diseases. In this narrative review, we focus on the evidence base for the effects of psilocybin on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial form and function; which may suggest that psilocybin has the potential to modulate multiple mechanisms of action, and may have implications in altering the progression from major depression to dementia in those at risk.</p

    Clinicians’ preferences and attitudes towards the use of lithium in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders around the world: a survey from the ISBD Lithium task force

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    Abstract Background Lithium has long been considered the gold-standard pharmacological treatment for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders (BD) which is supported by a wide body of evidence. Prior research has shown a steady decline in lithium prescriptions during the last two decades. We aim to identify potential factors explaining this decline across the world with an anonymous worldwide survey developed by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force “Role of Lithium in Bipolar Disorders” and distributed by diverse academic and professional international channels. Results A total of 886 responses were received of which 606 completed the entire questionnaire while 206 completed it partially. Respondents were from 43 different countries comprising all continents. Lithium was the most preferred treatment option for the maintenance of BD patients (59%). The most relevant clinical circumstances in which lithium was the preferred option were in patients with BD I (53%), a family history of response (18%), and a prior response during acute treatment (17%). In contrast, Lithium was not the preferred option in case of patients® negative beliefs and/or attitudes towards lithium (13%), acute side-effects or tolerability problems (10%) and intoxication risk (8%). Clinicians were less likely to prefer lithium as a first option in BD maintenance phase when practising in developing economy countries [X2 (1, N = 430) = 9465, p = 0.002) ] and private sectors [X2 (1, N = 434) = 8191, p = 0.004)]. Conclusions Clinicians’ preferences and attitudes towards the use of lithium in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders appear to be affected by both the patients’ beliefs and the professional contexts where clinicians provide their services. More research involving patients is needed for identifying their attitudes toward lithium and factors affecting its use, particularly in developing economies
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