749 research outputs found

    Dynamic MRI lesion evolution in paediatric MOG-Ab associated disease (MOGAD)

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    INTRODUCTION: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies are associated clinically with either a monophasic or relapsing disease course in both children and adults. There are few studies studying lesion evolution in children with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disorder (MOGAD). AIM: The aim of this study was to examine MRI lesion evolution over time in a large single-centre paediatric MOGAD cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with MOGAD from a tertiary paediatric neurosciences centre (Great Ormond Street Hospital) between 2001 to 2022. RESULTS: A total of 363 MRI scans from 59 included patients were available for analysis. Median age at presentation was 4 yrs (IQR 4-9), 32 (54.2%) were female and 34 (57.6%) were of non-white ethnicities. Twenty-seven children (45.8%) had a monophasic illness and 32 (54.2%) had a relapsing disease course. In the relapsing MOGAD group, median number of relapses was 4 (range 2-30). Initial presentation was ADEM in 27(46%), ON in 18 (31%) ADEM-ON in 4 (7%), ADEM-TM in 6 (10%) TM in 2 (3%) ADEM-TM-ON in 1 (2%) and ON-Brainstem syndrome in 1 (2%). There was no difference in demographics or clinical presentation between monophasic and relapsing groups. Fifteen patients (25.4%) had gadolinium enhancement on initial attack MRI. Seven out of 32 (21.9%) relapsing patients had persistent enhancement on follow-up MRI scans. One patient with a clinical transverse myelitis at presentation was MRI negative. New asymptomatic lesions following first clinical event were seen in 5/27 (18.5%) monophasic patients and 8/32 (25%) relapsing patients. During follow-up interval scanning,38 out of 59 have had follow up neuroimaging after their first attack whereas15/32 had relapsed before having a follow up MRI. Complete lesion resolution was reported in 9/38 (23.6%) (8 monophasic, 1 relapsing) following 1st acute attack, 3/32 (9.3%) after 2nd acute attack, and 1/32 (3.1%) following 3rd acute attack and 0/32 following 4th acute attack. Partial resolution of MRI lesions was seen in 7/20 (35%) monophasic patients and 7/32 (21.8%) relapsing patients at follow-up scans. CONCLUSIONS: Demyelinating lesions in paediatric MOGAD are dynamic and timing of MRI scanning may influence CNS region involvement. Unlike in multiple sclerosis, a significant number of MOGAD patients will have complete lesion resolution at first follow-up, although the ability to repair is reduced following multiple relapses

    The transformative potential of reflective diaries for elite English cricketers

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    The sport of cricket has a history of its players suffering from mental health issues. The psychological study of cricket and, in particular, the attendant demands of participating at an elite level has not previously received rigorous academic attention. This study explored ten elite male cricketers‚Äô experiences of keeping a daily reflective diary for one month during the competitive season. The aim was to assess how valuable qualitative diaries are in this field. Participants were interviewed regarding their appraisal of the methodology as a self‚Äźhelp tool that could assist coping with performance pressures and wider life challenges. Three outcomes were revealed: first, that diary keeping was an effective opportunity to reflect upon the past and enhance one‚Äôs self (both as an individual and a performer); second, that diary keeping acted as a form of release that allowed participants to progress; and third, that diary keeping allowed participants to discover personal patterns of success that increased the likeliness of optimum performance

    Isolated central nervous system familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (fHLH) presenting as a mimic of demyelination in children

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    Isolated central nervous system (CNS) presentations of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), traditionally a systemic inflammatory condition, have been reported in adults and children. We identified nine patients with a diagnosis of isolated CNS familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (fHLH) with symptom onset <18‚ÄČyears of age, and one asymptomatic sibling. Children with atypical chronic/recurrent CNS inflammation should be considered for immunological and genetic panel testing for fHLH even in the absence of any systemic inflammatory features. Despite haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) being a mainstay of treatment, treatment failure and high morbidity and mortality post-HSCT suggest that alternative immune therapies may be worth considering

    Spectrum of Neuroradiologic Findings Associated with Monogenic Interferonopathies

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    The genetic interferonopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders thought to be caused by the dysregulated expression of interferons and are now commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with recurrent or persistent inflammatory phenotypes. With emerging therapeutic options, recognition of these disorders is increasingly important, and neuroimaging plays a vital role. In this article, we discuss the wide spectrum of neuroradiologic features associated with monogenic interferonopathies by reviewing the literature and illustrate these with cases from our institutions. These cases include intracerebral calcifications, white matter T2 hyperintensities, deep WM cysts, cerebral atrophy, large cerebral artery disease, bilateral striatal necrosis, and masslike lesions. A better understanding of the breadth of the neuroimaging phenotypes in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings will enable earlier diagnosis and direct therapeutic strategies

    Precipitated iron: a limit on gettering efficacy in multicrystalline silicon

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    A phosphorus diffusion gettering model is used to examine the efficacy of a standard gettering process on interstitial and precipitated iron in multicrystalline silicon. The model predicts a large concentration of precipitated iron remaining after standard gettering for most as-grown iron distributions. Although changes in the precipitated iron distribution are predicted to be small, the simulated post-processing interstitial iron concentration is predicted to depend strongly on the as-grown distribution of precipitates, indicating that precipitates must be considered as internal sources of contamination during processing. To inform and validate the model, the iron distributions before and after a standard phosphorus diffusion step are studied in samples from the bottom, middle, and top of an intentionally Fe-contaminated laboratory ingot. A census of iron-silicide precipitates taken by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms the presence of a high density of iron-silicide precipitates both before and after phosphorus diffusion. A comparable precipitated iron distribution was measured in a sister wafer after hydrogenation during a firing step. The similar distributions of precipitated iron seen after each step in the solar cell process confirm that the effect of standard gettering on precipitated iron is strongly limited as predicted by simulation. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated data supports the hypothesis that gettering kinetics is governed by not only the total iron concentration but also by the distribution of precipitated iron. Finally, future directions based on the modeling are suggested for the improvement of effective minority carrier lifetime in multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    Spectrum of neuroimaging findings post-proton beam therapy in a large pediatric cohort

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    PURPOSE: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is now well established for the treatment of certain pediatric brain tumors. The intrinsic properties of PBT are known to reduce long-term negative effects of photon radiotherapy (PRT). To better understand the intracranial effects of PBT, we analyzed the longitudinal imaging changes in a cohort of children with brain tumors treated by PBT with clinical and radiotherapy dose correlations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective imaging review of 46 patients from our hospital with brain tumors treated by PBT. The imaging findings were correlated with clinical and dose parameters. RESULTS: Imaging changes were assessed by reviewing serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans following PBT over a follow-up period ranging from 1 month to 7 years. Imaging changes were observed in 23 patients undergoing PBT and categorized as pseudoprogression (10 patients, 43%), white matter changes (6 patients, 23%), parenchymal atrophy (6 patients, 23%), and cerebral large vessel arteriopathy (5 patients, 25%). Three patients had more than one type of imaging change. Clinical symptoms attributable to PBT were observed in 13 (28%) patients. CONCLUSION: In accordance with published literature, we found evidence of varied intracranial imaging changes in pediatric brain tumor patients treated with PBT. There was a higher incidence (10%) of large vessel cerebral arteriopathy in our cohort than previously described in the literature. Twenty-eight percent of patients had clinical sequelae as a result of these changes, particularly in the large vessel arteriopathy subgroup, arguing the need for angiographic and perfusion surveillance to pre-empt any morbidities and offer potential neuro-protection

    Development and Validation of a Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Gene Panel for Children With Neuroinflammation

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    Importance Neuroinflammatory disorders are a range of severe neurological disorders causing brain and spinal inflammation and are now increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. They are often characterized by marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity, complicating diagnostic work in clinical practice and molecular diagnosis. Objective To develop and evaluate a next-generation sequencing panel targeting genes causing neuroinflammation or mimicking neuroinflammation. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort study in which a total of 257 genes associated with monogenic neuroinflammation and/or cerebral vasculopathy, including monogenic noninflammatory diseases mimicking these entities, were selected. A customized enrichment capture array, the neuroinflammation gene panel (NIP), was created. Targeted high-coverage sequencing was applied to DNA samples taken from eligible patients referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital in London, United Kingdom, between January 1, 2017, and January 30, 2019, because of onset of disease early in life, family history, and/or complex neuroinflammatory phenotypes. Main Outcomes and Measures The main outcome was the percentage of individuals with definitive molecular diagnoses, variant classification, and clinical phenotyping of patients with pathogenic variants identified using the NIP panel. The NIP panel was initially validated in 16 patients with known genetic diagnoses. Results The NIP was both sensitive (95%) and specific (100%) for detection of known mutations, including gene deletions, copy number variants, small insertions and deletions, and somatic mosaicism with allele fraction as low as 3%. Prospective testing of 60 patients (30 [50%] male; median [range] age, 9.8 [0.8-20] years) presenting with heterogeneous neuroinflammatory phenotypes revealed at least 1 class 5 (clearly pathogenic) variant in 9 of 60 patients (15%); 18 of 60 patients (30%) had at least 1 class 4 (likely pathogenic) variant. Overall, a definitive molecular diagnosis was established in 12 of 60 patients (20%). Conclusions and Relevance The NIP was associated with molecular diagnosis in this cohort and complemented routine laboratory and radiological workup of patients with neuroinflammation. Unexpected genotype-phenotype associations in patients with pathogenic variants deviating from the classic phenotype were identified. Obtaining an accurate molecular diagnosis in a timely fashion informed patient management, including successful targeted treatment in some instances and early institution of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in other

    Visual outcomes and predictors in optic pathway glioma: a single centre study

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    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) may cause progressive visual loss despite chemotherapy. Newer, less toxic treatments might be given earlier, depending on visual prognosis. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of visual evoked potentials (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: A retrospective study of OPG patients (treated 2003‚Äď2017) was conducted. Primary outcome was PEDIG category visual acuity in better and worse eyes (good‚ÄČ‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.7 logMAR). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of these outcomes. RESULTS: 60 patients (32 Neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1] and 28 sporadic) had median presentation age 49 months (range 17‚Äď183) (NF1) and 27 months (range 4‚Äď92) (sporadic). Median follow up was 82 months (range 12‚Äď189 months). At follow up 24/32 (75%) of NF1 children and 14/28 (50%) of sporadic children had good better eye visual acuity and 11/32 (34%) of NF1 children and 15/28 (54%) of sporadics had poor worse eye acuity. Mean peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness predicted good better eye final acuity (OR 0.799, 95%CI 0.646‚Äď0.987, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.038). Presenting with visual symptoms (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.001‚Äď0.508, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.017) and poorer VEP scores (OR 2.35 95% CI 1.1‚Äď5.03, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.027) predicted poor worse eye final acuity. 16 children had homonymous hemianopias at follow up, predicted by poor presenting binocular VEP score (OR 1.449 95%CI 1.052‚Äď1.995, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found that both RNFL thickness on OCT and VEP were useful in predicting future visual acuity and vision and potentially in planning treatment. We had a high prevalence of homonymous hemianopia

    Aquaporin-4 IgG antibody-related disorders in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Objective The aim of this study was to: (a) screen a large group of unselected patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus for anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab); (b) identify clinical and laboratory predictors of the presence of AQP4-Ab positivity in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Sera from 90 patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus were tested for the presence of AQP4-Ab using a cell-based assay. Demographics, clinical and immunological features, treatment received were summarized. Fisher‚Äôs exact test was used to identify clinical predictors of positivity for AQP4-Ab. Results Five of 90 (5.5%) patients tested positive for AQP4-Ab, all of which had neurological involvement, mainly transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. AQP4-Ab-positive patients were more likely to have neurological symptoms (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.002), less likely to experience dermatological manifestations (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.045), and less likely to have detectable anti-dsDNA antibodies (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.022). These patients were also more likely to have received anti-epileptic (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.023) and anti-coagulant (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.007) drugs. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that some patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus develop antibodies against aquaporin-4 and may be at risk of developing a neurological clinical phenotype. We suggest that all juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients should be systematically screened for the presence of AQP4-Ab and this may help identify a high risk for neurological involvement in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus
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