23 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Intravenous infusion of ketamine-propofol can be an alternative to intravenous infusion of fentanyl-propofol for deep sedation and analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing emergency short surgical procedures

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    Background: Paediatric patients often present with different painful conditions that require immediate surgical interventions. Despite a plethora of articles on the ketamine-propofol combination, comprehensive evidence regarding the suitable sedoanalgesia regime is lacking due to heterogeneity in study designs. Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial was conducted in 100 children, of age 3-14 years, American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status IE-IIE, posted for emergency short surgical procedures. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2 mL of normal saline (pre-induction) plus calculated volume of drug from the 11 mL of ketamine-propofol solution for induction (group PK, n=50) or fentanyl 1.5 ÎĽg/kg diluted to 2 mL with normal saline (pre-induction) plus calculated volume of drug from the 11 mL of propofol solution for induction (group PF, n=50). In both the groups, the initial bolus propofol 1 mg/kg i.v. (assuming the syringes contained only propofol, for simplicity) was followed by adjusted infusion to achieve a Ramsay Sedation Scale score of six. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was the primary outcome measurement. Results: Data from 48 patients in group PK and 44 patients in group PF were available for analysis. Hypotension was found in seven patients (14.6%) in group PK compared with 17 (38.6%) patients in group PF (P=0.009). Intraoperative MAP was significantly lower in group PF than group PK when compared with baseline. Conclusion: The combination of low-dose ketamine and propofol is more effective and a safer sedoanalgesia regimen than the propofol-fentanyl combination in paediatric emergency short surgical procedures in terms of haemodynamic stability and lesser incidence of apnoea

    Fatal thyrocardiac event

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    Atrial fibrillation occurs frequently (2–20%) in chronic hyperthyroidism patients. Poorly treated thyrotoxic patients may present with a life-threatening cerebrovascular accident giving little scope to revert the situation. At times, it is difficult to make a patient euthyroid with conventional management. The definitive treatment of choice is 131I, radioiodine. An adjusted dose of an oral anticoagulant is highly efficacious for the prevention of all types of strokes. Timely intervention by a skilled airway manager with right instruments is the key to success in airway management. A 50-year-old thyrotoxic, semiconscious male presented with a sudden onset of haemiplegia. He had chronic AF, a huge thyroid swelling with gross tracheal deviation and dilated cardiomyopathy. A CT scan showed infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory. After initial improvement with conservative management, patient’s condition deteriorated in the next 48 h. Repeat CT scan showed increase in the infarct size with haemorrhage and midline shift. Finally, he died despite all resuscitative measures

    IGF-Loaded Silicon and Zinc Doped Brushite Cement: Physico-Mechanical Characterization and In Vivo Osteogenesis Evaluation

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    Dopants play critical roles in controlling the physical, mechanical, degradation kinetics, and in vivo properties of calcium phosphates. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Silicon (Si) and Zinc (Zn) dopants on physico-mechanical, and in vivo osteogenesis properties of brushite cements (BrCs) alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor 1(IGF-1). Although addition of 0.5 wt.% Si did not alter the setting time, β-TCP content, and compressive strength of BrCs significantly, 0.25 wt. % Zn incorporation was accompanied by a significant decrease in mechanical strength from 4.78±0.21 MPa for pure BrC to 3.78±0.59 MPa and 3.28±0.22 MPa for Zn-BrC and Si/Zn-BrC, respectively. The in vivo bone regeneration properties of doped BrCs alone and in combination with IGF-1 were assessed and compared using chronological radiography, histology, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling after 2 and 4 months post implantation in rabbit femoral defect model. Based on different in vivo characterization, better osteogenesis and vasculogenesis was observed for Si-BrC and Si/Zn-BrC, whereas moderate bone regeneration was found in Zn-BrC as compared to pure BrCs. Excellent bone regeneration was observed when doped BrCs were combined with IGF-1. Our findings signify that addition of Si and/or Zn alters the physico-mechanical properties of BrCs and promotes the early stage in vivo osseointegration and bone remodeling properties. Moreover, addition of IGF-1 further improved the performance of BrCs in terms of bone regeneration in animal model

    Cefuroxime-impregnated calcium phosphates as an implantable delivery system in experimental osteomyelitis

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    The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of porous calcium phosphates viz., hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a bi-phasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with predominately beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) prepared by aqueous solution combustion method impregnated with cefuroxime axetil for the treatment of experimental osteomyelitis and compared with parenteral treatment. In vitro release of the drug was tested for its sustained elution characteristics for 21 days in PBS (pH 7.2) and measured by HPLC. In the in vivo study, bone infection was induced in tibia of rabbits by inoculation of 1 ml (3 x 10(6)) CFU Staphylococcus aureus. On the 21st day, after the development of osteomyelitis, six animals were treated by filling the cavity with cefuroxime-impregnated HAp blocks (Group II), six animals with the same drug-impregnated beta-TCP (Group III) and in six others, only cefuroxime (15 mg/kg twice daily) was injected parenterally 6 weeks (Group IV). Group I with six animals was kept untreated. Histologically, the signs of infection were found to subside by 3 and 6 weeks. Radiological evaluation with cefuroxime-impregnated HAp and PTCP pointed out the disappearance of sequestrum and existence of newly formed bony specules. Concentration of cefuroxime in bone and serum as estimated by HPLC showed highest value on day 21 itself which reduced marginally by day 42 in both the groups and these values were higher than minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) against S. aureus. Our findings suggest that bi-phasic calcium phosphates with predominately beta-TCP content is a very efficient carrier material for antibiotic compounds even for refractory infections by S. aureus. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved

    In vitro and in vivo release of cefuroxime axetil from bioactive glass as an implantable delivery system in experimental osteomyelitis

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characterisation, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and anti microbial activity of bioactive glass (BG) impregnated with an antibiotic. The BG was prepared by normal glass melting procedures as a controlled release device to treat experimental osteomyelitis. The study design was for prospective in vivo experimental study. Two sets of porous bioactive glass ceramic blocks (9 mm x 4 mm x 4 mm and 20 mm x 9 mm x 9 mm) were fabricated using bioactive glass powder and subsequently antibiotic cefuroxime axetil (CFA) (55 and 125 mg on an average) was impregnated in these two sets of blocks, respectively. Osteomyelitis was produced in the right tibia of the rabbits according to the model of Norden. After thorough in vitro characterization of the porous blocks [including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thorough chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectra (ICP-AES) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)] and in vitro elution of the said drug, in vivo test was carried out with rabbit species split into two groups: (a) animals treated with CFA impregnated bioactive glass and (b) parenteral [intra muscular (IM)] administration of CFA. Histological, radiological and drug concentration in bone and serum (measured by HPLC) in both groups were carried out. HPLC technique was used for determination of concentration both in vitro and in vivo. Fabricated porous struts showed amorphous microstructure without formation of any crystallite. The elution of said drug was stopped after 6 days in vitro. Histological studies at 3 and 6 weeks revealed formation of well-developed lamellar bone and havarsian canal. Radiological evaluation pointed out disappearance of sequestrum and existence of newly formed bony specules. Concentration of cefuroxime axetil in bone and serum showed highest value on day 21 which reduced marginally by day 42 and these values were higher than minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus (known pathogen for chronic osteomyelitis). It could be concluded that the biodegradable antibiotic carrier system developed in this study proved to be an effective therapeutic approach toward an experimental model of osteomyelitis. Based particularly on the in vivo results of the study, this cefuroxime axetil incorporated bioactive glass blocks can be Successfully used in clinical cases of osteomyelitis in veterinary as well as human orthopaedic surgery

    Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of Г-semigroups, Int

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    Abstract The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy set was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy set. In this paper we apply this concept of Atanassov to ideals, prime ideals and semiprime ideals of Γ-semigroups in order to obtain some characterization theorems. We also introduce the notion of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy ideal extension in a Γ-semigroup and investigate some of their important properties. A regular Γ-semigroup has been characterized in terms of Atanasov's intutionistic fuzzy ideal. Characterization of prime ideal of a Γ-semigroup has also been obtained in terms of Atanassov's intutionistic fuzzy ideal extension. Mathematics Subject Classification: 20N2