12 research outputs found

    Phenological shifts of abiotic events, producers and consumers across a continent

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    Ongoing climate change can shift organism phenology in ways that vary depending on species, habitats and climate factors studied. To probe for large-scale patterns in associated phenological change, we use 70,709 observations from six decades of systematic monitoring across the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Among 110 phenological events related to plants, birds, insects, amphibians and fungi, we find a mosaic of change, defying simple predictions of earlier springs, later autumns and stronger changes at higher latitudes and elevations. Site mean temperature emerged as a strong predictor of local phenology, but the magnitude and direction of change varied with trophic level and the relative timing of an event. Beyond temperature-associated variation, we uncover high variation among both sites and years, with some sites being characterized by disproportionately long seasons and others by short ones. Our findings emphasize concerns regarding ecosystem integrity and highlight the difficulty of predicting climate change outcomes. The authors use systematic monitoring across the former USSR to investigate phenological changes across taxa. The long-term mean temperature of a site emerged as a strong predictor of phenological change, with further imprints of trophic level, event timing, site, year and biotic interactions.Peer reviewe

    Chronicles of nature calendar, a long-term and large-scale multitaxon database on phenology

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    We present an extensive, large-scale, long-term and multitaxon database on phenological and climatic variation, involving 506,186 observation dates acquired in 471 localities in Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. The data cover the period 1890-2018, with 96% of the data being from 1960 onwards. The database is rich in plants, birds and climatic events, but also includes insects, amphibians, reptiles and fungi. The database includes multiple events per species, such as the onset days of leaf unfolding and leaf fall for plants, and the days for first spring and last autumn occurrences for birds. The data were acquired using standardized methods by permanent staff of national parks and nature reserves (87% of the data) and members of a phenological observation network (13% of the data). The database is valuable for exploring how species respond in their phenology to climate change. Large-scale analyses of spatial variation in phenological response can help to better predict the consequences of species and community responses to climate change.Peer reviewe

    The Current Diversity and Distribution of the Simple Thalloid Genus <i>Apopellia</i> (Marchantiophyta): Evidence from an Integrative Taxonomic Study

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    An integrative study of expanded sampling of Apopellia species, including the topotype of Apopellia megaspora, made it possible to clarify the taxonomic position and distribution of the species of the genus. The ITS1-2 and trnL-F sequence data were obtained for 36 molecularly tested specimens, including the topotype Apopellia megaspora, that together with data previously deposited in GenBank, support the treatment of Apopellia as a separate genus and A. alpicola as a distinct species, as well as radically change the idea on the distribution of the species of the genus. It is shown that A. megaspora is an American-Asian species with single records in Europe, whereas A. alpicola is a West-American-Eurasian species widespread in western North America and occurring scattered in Eurasia. Both species occur in the mountains of western North America and south Siberia. A. endiviifolia is widespread in Europe, scattered in Asia and so far not confirmed for America. The expanded sampling of Apopellia spp. allows us to clarify the morphological features of the species of the genus, and microphotographs illustrate the more-important morphological features

    Flora of lichens, mosses and liverworts of Wrangel Island: New records

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    New records to lichen flora and bryoflora of Wrangel Island are presented. The additions to the island cryptogam flora include 32 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus, 26 mosses and eleven liverwort species. Acarospora sinopica, Alectoria gowardii, Austroplaca sibirica, Calogaya bryochrysion, Hymenelia ceracea, Porpidia ochrolemma, and Sagiolechia protuberans are new to the island and to the Russian Far East. Two lichen species (Lecidea lithophila and Rinodina terrestris), as well as two liverwort taxa (Clevea hyaline, Lophoziopsis excisa var. elegans and Pseudolophozia debiliformis), are new to the Chukotka Autonomous Area. Two of the reported moss species (Funaria arctica and Schistidium umbrosum) are extremely rare. Location data and ecological descriptions for the newly reported species are included

    Differences in spatial versus temporal reaction norms for spring and autumn phenological events

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    For species to stay temporally tuned to their environment, they use cues such as the accumulation of degree-days. The relationships between the timing of a phenological event in a population and its environmental cue can be described by a population-level reaction norm. Variation in reaction norms along environmental gradients may either intensify the environmental effects on timing (cogradient variation) or attenuate the effects (countergradient variation). To resolve spatial and seasonal variation in species' response, we use a unique dataset of 91 taxa and 178 phenological events observed across a network of 472 monitoring sites, spread across the nations of the former Soviet Union. We show that compared to local rates of advancement of phenological events with the advancement of temperature-related cues (i.e., variation within site over years), spatial variation in reaction norms tend to accentuate responses in spring (cogradient variation) and attenuate them in autumn (countergradient variation). As a result, among-population variation in the timing of events is greater in spring and less in autumn than if all populations followed the same reaction norm regardless of location. Despite such signs of local adaptation, overall phenotypic plasticity was not sufficient for phenological events to keep exact pace with their cues-the earlier the year, the more did the timing of the phenological event lag behind the timing of the cue. Overall, these patterns suggest that differences in the spatial versus temporal reaction norms will affect species' response to climate change in opposite ways in spring and autumn