1,710 research outputs found

### Care gaps and recommendations in vestibular migraine: An expert panel summit

Vestibular migraine (VM) is an increasingly recognized pathology yet remains as an underdiagnosed cause of vestibular disorders. While current diagnostic criteria are codified in the 2012 Barany Society document and included in the third edition of the international classification of headache disorders, the pathophysiology of this disorder is still elusive. The Association for Migraine Disorders hosted a multidisciplinary, international expert workshop in October 2020 and identified seven current care gaps that the scientific community needs to resolve, including a better understanding of the range of symptoms and phenotypes of VM, the lack of a diagnostic marker, a better understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms, as well as the lack of clear recommendations for interventions (nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic) and finally, the need for specific outcome measures that will guide clinicians as well as research into the efficacy of interventions. The expert group issued several recommendations to address those areas including establishing a global VM registry, creating an improved diagnostic algorithm using available vestibular tests as well as others that are in development, conducting appropriate trials of high quality to validate current clinically available treatment and fostering collaborative efforts to elucidate the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying VM, specifically the role of the trigemino-vascular pathways

### Evidence for the absence of regularization corrections to the partial-wave renormalization procedure in one-loop self energy calculations in external fields

The equivalence of the covariant renormalization and the partial-wave
renormaliz ation (PWR) approach is proven explicitly for the one-loop
self-energy correction (SE) of a bound electron state in the presence of
external perturbation potentials. No spurious correctio n terms to the
noncovariant PWR scheme are generated for Coulomb-type screening potentia ls
and for external magnetic fields. It is shown that in numerical calculations of
the SE with Coulombic perturbation potential spurious terms result from an
improper treatment of the unphysical high-energy contribution. A method for
performing the PWR utilizing the relativistic B-spline approach for the
construction of the Dirac spectrum in external magnetic fields is proposed.
This method is applied for calculating QED corrections to the bound-electron
$g$-factor in H-like ions. Within the level of accuracy of about 0.1% no
spurious terms are generated in numerical calculations of the SE in magnetic
fields.Comment: 22 pages, LaTeX, 1 figur

### The second-order electron self-energy in hydrogen-like ions

A calculation of the simplest part of the second-order electron self-energy
(loop after loop irreducible contribution) for hydrogen-like ions with nuclear
charge numbers $3 \leq Z \leq 92$ is presented. This serves as a test for the
more complicated second-order self-energy parts (loop inside loop and crossed
loop contributions) for heavy one-electron ions. Our results are in strong
disagreement with recent calculations of Mallampalli and Sapirstein for low $Z$
values but are compatible with the two known terms of the analytical
$Z\alpha$-expansion.Comment: 13 LaTex pages, 2 figure

### Two-Loop Effects and Current Status of the 4He+ Lamb Shift

We report on recent progress in the treatment of two-loop binding corrections
to the Lamb shift, with a special emphasis on S and P states. We use these and
other results in order to infer an updated theoretical value of the Lamb shift
in 4He+.Comment: 11 pages, nrc1 style; paper presented at PSAS (2006), Venic

### Logarithmic two-loop corrections to the Lamb shift in hydrogen

Higher order $(\alpha/\pi)^2 (Z \alpha)^6$ logarithmic corrections to the
hydrogen Lamb shift are calculated. The results obtained show the two-loop
contribution has a very peculiar behavior, and significantly alter the
theoretical predictions for low lying S-states.Comment: 14 pages, including 2 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. A, updated
with minor change

### Loop-after-loop contribution to the second-order Lamb shift in hydrogenlike low-Z atoms

We present a numerical evaluation of the loop-after-loop contribution to the
second-order self-energy for the ground state of hydrogenlike atoms with low
nuclear charge numbers Z. The calculation is carried out in the Fried-Yennie
gauge and without an expansion in Z \alpha. Our calculation confirms the
results of Mallampalli and Sapirstein and disagrees with the calculation by
Goidenko and coworkers. A discrepancy between different calculations is
investigated. An accurate fitting of the numerical results provides a detailed
comparison with analytic calculations based on an expansion in the parameter Z
\alpha. We confirm the analytic results of order \alpha^2 (Z\alpha)^5 but
disagree with Karshenboim's calculation of the \alpha^2 (Z \alpha)^6 \ln^3(Z
\alpha)^{-2} contribution.Comment: RevTex, 19 pages, 4 figure

### The Standard Model in Strong Fields: Electroweak Radiative Corrections for Highly Charged Ions

Electroweak radiative corrections to the matrix elements $<ns_{1/2}|{\hat
H}_{PNC}|n'p_{1/2}>$ are calculated for highly charged hydrogenlike ions. These
matrix elements constitute the basis for the description of the most parity
nonconserving (PNC) processes in atomic physics. The operator ${\hat H}_{PNC}$
represents the parity nonconserving relativistic effective atomic Hamiltonian
at the tree level. The deviation of these calculations from the calculations
valid for the momentum transfer $q^{2}=0$ demonstrates the effect of the strong
field, characterized by the momentum transfer $q^{2}=m_{e}^{2}$ ($m_{e}$ is the
electron mass). This allows for a test of the Standard Model in the presence of
strong fields in experiments with highly charged ions.Comment: 27 LaTex page

### One-loop self-energy correction to the 1s and 2s hyperfine splitting in H-like systems

The one-loop self-energy correction to the hyperfine splitting of the 1s and
2s levels in H-like low-Z atoms is evaluated to all orders in Z\alpha. The
results are compared to perturbative calculations. The residual higher-order
contribution is evaluated. Implications to the specific difference of the
hyperfine structure intervals 8\Delta \nu_2 - \Delta \nu_1 in He^+ are
investigated.Comment: 17 pages, RevTeX, 3 figure

### Double-Logarithmic Two-Loop Self-Energy Corrections to the Lamb Shift

Self-energy corrections involving logarithms of the parameter Zalpha can
often be derived within a simplified approach, avoiding calculational
difficulties typical of the problematic non-logarithmic corrections (as
customary in bound-state quantum electrodynamics, we denote by Z the nuclear
charge number, and by alpha the fine-structure constant). For some logarithmic
corrections, it is sufficient to consider internal properties of the electron
characterized by form factors. We provide a detailed derivation of related
self-energy ``potentials'' that give rise to the logarithmic corrections; these
potentials are local in coordinate space. We focus on the double-logarithmic
two-loop coefficient B_62 for P states and states with higher angular momenta
in hydrogenlike systems. We complement the discussion by a systematic
derivation of B_62 based on nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED). In
particular, we find that an additional double logarithm generated by the
loop-after-loop diagram cancels when the entire gauge-invariant set of two-loop
self-energy diagrams is considered. This double logarithm is not contained in
the effective-potential approach.Comment: 14 pages, 1 figure; references added and typographical errors
corrected; to appear in Phys. Rev.

### PLUNC Is a Novel Airway Surfactant Protein with Anti-Biofilm Activity

The PLUNC ("Palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone") protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia present throughout the conducting airways of humans and other mammals, which is evolutionarily related to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LT/LBP) family. Two members of this family--the bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) and the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)--are innate immune molecules with recognized roles in sensing and responding to Gram negative bacteria, leading many to propose that PLUNC may play a host defense role in the human airways.Based on its marked hydrophobicity, we hypothesized that PLUNC may be an airway surfactant. We found that purified recombinant human PLUNC greatly enhanced the ability of aqueous solutions to spread on a hydrophobic surface. Furthermore, we discovered that PLUNC significantly reduced surface tension at the air-liquid interface in aqueous solutions, indicating novel and biologically relevant surfactant properties. Of note, surface tensions achieved by adding PLUNC to solutions are very similar to measurements of the surface tension in tracheobronchial secretions from humans and animal models. Because surfactants of microbial origin can disperse matrix-encased bacterial clusters known as biofilms [1], we hypothesized that PLUNC may also have anti-biofilm activity. We found that, at a physiologically relevant concentration, PLUNC inhibited biofilm formation by the airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro model.Our data suggest that the PLUNC protein contributes to the surfactant properties of airway secretions, and that this activity may interfere with biofilm formation by an airway pathogen

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