3,716 research outputs found

    Pairing symmetry of the one-band Hubbard model in the paramagnetic weak-coupling limit: a numerical RPA study

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    We study the spin-fluctuation-mediated superconducting pairing gap in a weak-coupling approach to the Hubbard model for a two dimensional square lattice in the paramagnetic state. Performing a comprehensive theoretical study of the phase diagram as a function of filling, we find that the superconducting gap exhibits transitions from p-wave at very low electron fillings to d_{x^2-y^2}-wave symmetry close to half filling in agreement with previous reports. At intermediate filling levels, different gap symmetries appear as a consequence of the changes in the Fermi surface topology and the associated structure of the spin susceptibility. In particular, the vicinity of a van Hove singularity in the electronic structure close to the Fermi level has important consequences for the gap structure in favoring the otherwise sub-dominant triplet solution over the singlet d-wave solution. By solving the full gap equation, we find that the energetically favorable triplet solutions are chiral and break time reversal symmetry. Finally, we also calculate the detailed angular gap structure of the quasi-particle spectrum, and show how spin-fluctuation-mediated pairing leads to significant deviations from the first harmonics both in the singlet d_{x^2-y^2} gap as well as the chiral triplet gap solution.Comment: 11 pages 11 figure

    On the Use of Proof-of-Work in Permissioned Blockchains: Security and Fairness

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    In permissioned blockchains, a set of identifiable miners validates transactions and creates new blocks. In scholarship, the proposed solution for the consensus protocol is usually inspired by the Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) based on voting rather than the proof-of-work (PoW). The advantage of PoW with respect to BFT is that it allows the final user to evaluate the cost required to change a confirmed transaction without the need to trust the consortium of miners. In this paper, we analyse the problems that arise from the application of PoW in permissioned blockchains. In standard PoW, it may be easy for colluded miners to temporarily reach 50% of the total hash power (HP). Moreover, since mining rewards are not usually expected in permissioned contexts, the problem of balancing the computational efforts among the miners becomes crucial. We propose a solution based on a sliding window algorithm to address these problems and analyse its effectiveness in terms of fairness and security. Furthermore, we present a quantitative, analytical model in order to assess its capacity to balance the hash power provided by heterogeneous miners. Our study considers the trade-off between the need to trust the entire consortium of miners guaranteed by the global HP invested by the mining process and the need to prevent collusion among malicious miners aimed at reaching 50% of the total HP. As a result, the model can be used to find the optimal parameters for the sliding window protocol
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