583 research outputs found

    A measurement of top quark pair and photon production cross section with CMS detector

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    Doctor of PhilosophyPhysicsAndrew G. IvanovIn this thesis the measurement of production cross section of top-quark pairs in association with a photon in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data was recorded at the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2012. This measurement aims to extend our knowledge of top quark properties and help to test consistency of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Data-driven methods are used to estimate the photon identification efficiency and purity. The measured cross-section agrees with the standard model expectation

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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