136 research outputs found

    Evidence of distributed subpial T2* signal changes at 7T in multiple sclerosis : an histogram based approach

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    Subpial lesions are the most frequent type of cortical lesion in multiple sclerosis (MS), and are thought to be closely associated with poor clinical outcome. Neuropathological studies report that subpial lesions may come in two major types: they may appear as circumscribed, focal lesions, or extend across multiple adjacent gyri leading to a phenomenon termed “general subpial demyelination” [1]. The in vivo evaluation of diffuse subpial disease is challenging – signal changes may be subtle, and extend across large regions where signal inhomogeneities due to B1 and RF receive coil non-uniformities become more pronounced. Here, we investigate whether a histogram-based analysis of T2* signal intensity in the cortex, at 7T MRI, can show evidence of distributed subpial cortical changes in patients with MS, as described histopathologically. We hypothesized that this phenomenon would be associated with significantly increased T2* signal intensity in patients compared to age-matched controls.Center Algoritm

    El peso transportado en las mochilas escolares: un estudio en cuatro escuelas de la región metropolitana de buenos aires, argentina

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    Objetivo Determinar el peso transportado del equipaje escolar (en valores absolutos y relativos) y la distancia caminada en los trayectos hogar–escuela, en escolares de cuatro escuelas de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires.Métodos Se estudiaron 751 alumnos (394 varones y 357 mujeres, de 9 a 18 años) de niveles primario (4to. a 6to. grados), y secundario (1ro. a 3er. años) de tres escuelas de gestión privada y una pública. Se midieron los pesos corporal y del equipaje escolar, y se indagó sobre la distancia desde la escuela al hogar, y sobre las cuadras caminadas en este trayecto. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y contrastes según género, nivel educativo, tipo de escuela y grados y años cursados. Se verificaron posibles asociaciones entre variables. Se dividió al grupo en dos: quienes transportaban menos del 10 % de su peso corporal, y los que acarreaban el 10 % (considerado como valor crítico) y más, calculándose las frecuencias según tipo de equipaje utilizado.Resultados El 68 % de los evaluados transporta un peso por encima del 10 % del peso corporal (P42=10,13 %), siendo del 66 % para varones (P44 = 10,12 %) y 60 % para mujeres (P40=10,2 %). En escuelas privadas se acarrearon mayores pesos que en públicas (p and lt;0,05); y en ambos niveles educativos los alumnos de cursosinferiores transportaron pesos superiores que los de grados superiores (p and lt;0,05).Conclusiones La mayoría de los alumnos transporta pesos relativos por encima de las recomendaciones, siendo las mujeres las más perjudicadas. Los más pequeños cargan pesos absolutos y relativos mayores

    On the Role of Inhibition Processes in Modeling Control Strategies for Composting Plants

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    We introduce a mathematical model for the composting process in biocells where several chemical phenomena, like the aerobic biodegradation, the hydrolysis of insoluble substrate and the biomass decay, occur. We investigate the best aeration strategies in presence of inhibition processes due to high concentrations of oxygen. Optimal stategries are obtained as result of a suitable optimal control problem. The dynamics exhibits an enhanced level of the oxygen concentration that guarantees the aerobic feature of the biodegradation process. Then, a nonlinear bioeconomic term is included in the objective functional to take into account of the external operational cost. The role of the economic cost in the control policy is analyzed and discussed

    Cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

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    Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is a common clinical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) at both the earlier and later stages of the disease, and has a significant impact on patients' functional status and quality of life. The need to address this deficit should be taken into account in clinical practice and research studies. Objective To conduct an updated systematic review of all published studies of cognitive rehabilitation interventions in people with MS, including studies with methodological shortcomings, to highlight major strengths and weaknesses in the field and to provide directions for future research. Search methods We searched electronic databases (PubMed and Web of Science) for articles published in English up until January 2014. The reference lists of all identified articles were also searched to complete the initial list of references. Data extraction Articles were categorized into outcome measures: cognition, imaging, mood, fatigue, quality of life and self-perceived cognitive deficits. All articles were reviewed independently and assessed according to predetermined criteria. Results A total of 33 studies met the inclusion criteria of which 4 were of Level II-1 and none was Level I. Although the majority of these studies reported some improvements in cognitive abilities (N = 31), the evidence which has been reported in the literature remains inconclusive and no definite conclusions can be drawn about the effect of different types of interventions on cognitive rehabilitation outcomes (recommendation C). Conclusions This review identified conflicting findings in the published literature about the effectiveness of various forms of cognitive rehabilitation techniques used in patients with MS. Studies with more rigorous methodology are therefore needed to clarify which form of cognitive rehabilitation may lead to greater clinical improvement

    The Benefits of Mutualism: A Conceptual Framework

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    There are three general mechanisms by which phenotypic benefits are transferred between unrelated organisms. First, one organism may purloin benefits from another by preying on or parasitizing the other organism. Second, one organism may enjoy benefits that are incidental to or a by-product of the self-serving traits of another organism. Third, an organism may invest in another organism if that investment produces return benefits which outweigh the cost of the investment. Interactions in which both parties gain a net benefit are mutualistic. The three mechanisms by which benefits are transferred between organisms can be combined in pairs to produce six possible kinds of original or ‘basal’ mutualisms that can arise from an amutualistic state. A review of the literature suggests that most or all interspecific mutualism have origins in three of the six possible kinds of basal mutualism. Each of these three basal mutualisms have byproduct benefits flowing in at least one direction. The transfer of by-product benefits and investment are common to both intra- and interspecific mutualisms, so that some interspecific mutualisms have intraspecific analogs. A basal mutualism may evolve to the point where each party invests in the other, sometimes obscuring the nature of the original interaction along the way. Two prominent models for the evolution of mutualism do not include by-product benefits: Roughgarden's model for the evolution of the damsel-fish anemone mutualism and the ‘Tit-for-Tat’ model of reciprocity. Using the conceptual framework presented here, including in particular by-product benefits, I have shown how it is possible to construct more parsimonious alternatives to both models.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/72439/1/j.1469-185X.1995.tb01196.x.pd

    Revisiting Brain Atrophy and Its Relationship to Disability in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Brain atrophy is a well-accepted imaging biomarker of multiple sclerosis (MS) that partially correlates with both physical disability and cognitive impairment.Based on MRI scans of 60 MS cases and 37 healthy volunteers, we measured the volumes of white matter (WM) lesions, cortical gray matter (GM), cerebral WM, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, ventricles, and brainstem using a validated and completely automated segmentation method. We correlated these volumes with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), MS Severity Scale (MSSS), MS Functional Composite (MSFC), and quantitative measures of ankle strength and toe sensation. Normalized volumes of both cortical and subcortical GM structures were abnormally low in the MS group, whereas no abnormality was found in the volume of the cerebral WM. High physical disability was associated with low cerebral WM, thalamus, and brainstem volumes (partial correlation coefficients ~0.3-0.4) but not with low cortical GM volume. Thalamus volumes were inversely correlated with lesion load (r = -0.36, p<0.005).The GM is atrophic in MS. Although lower WM volume is associated with greater disability, as might be expected, WM volume was on average in the normal range. This paradoxical result might be explained by the presence of coexisting pathological processes, such as tissue damage and repair, that cause both atrophy and hypertrophy and that underlie the observed disability

    Gray matter imaging in multiple sclerosis: what have we learned?

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    At the early onset of the 20th century, several studies already reported that the gray matter was implicated in the histopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, as white matter pathology long received predominant attention in this disease, and histological staining techniques for detecting myelin in the gray matter were suboptimal, it was not until the beginning of the 21st century that the true extent and importance of gray matter pathology in MS was finally recognized. Gray matter damage was shown to be frequent and extensive, and more pronounced in the progressive disease phases. Several studies subsequently demonstrated that the histopathology of gray matter lesions differs from that of white matter lesions. Unfortunately, imaging of pathology in gray matter structures proved to be difficult, especially when using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. However, with the recent introduction of several more advanced MRI techniques, the detection of cortical and subcortical damage in MS has considerably improved. This has important consequences for studying the clinical correlates of gray matter damage. In this review, we provide an overview of what has been learned about imaging of gray matter damage in MS, and offer a brief perspective with regards to future developments in this field