95 research outputs found

    Small Grain Disease and Insect Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of small grain diseases and insect pests were conducted in Vermont, New York and Massachusetts during the 2017 growing season. Pests were scouted on seven Vermont farm locations in the towns of Alburgh, Berlin, Bridport, North Ferrisburgh, North Troy, Shelburne, and Shoreham, as well as in Essex, New York and Northfield, Massachusetts. Winter and spring wheat (heirloom and commercially available), as well as spring barley and spelt, were scouted between spike emergence and flowering, and again at the soft dough growth stage. Disease and insect samples were taken and identified with assistance from the University of Vermont (UVM) Plant Diagnostic Clinic

    Dry Bean Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of dry bean pests was conducted on farms throughout Vermont during the 2016 season. Plant diseases and insect pests were scouted on five Vermont farm locations in the towns of Alburgh, Cambridge, Danby, Glover, and North Ferrisburg. Unknown disease and insect samples were taken and identified with assistance from the UVM Plant Diagnostic Laboratory (PDC)

    Germination in Spring Grains Treated with Organic Seed Amendments and Aerated Steam

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    Small grains are often planted early in the spring when the soil is cool and wet creating ideal conditions for soilborne pathogens. Seed-borne pathogens that cause root rot and damping-off during germination and early seed growth, can often be prevented by treating seeds with conventional fungicides. Organic production does not allow conventional fungicide seed treatments and organic approved seed treatments may help farmers establish better stands of crops. The goal of this project was to compare the impact of various seed protectants and treatments on germination rates of spring wheat and barley

    Adsorption of diclofenac sodium in clay

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    Orientador: Melissa Gurgel Adeodato VieiraDissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia QuímicaResumo: O aumento na produção e consumo de produtos farmacêuticos resulta na constante geração de resíduos. Os tratamentos convencionais de efluentes não são capazes de eliminar completamente esses microcontaminantes, tornando imprescindível a pesquisa de novas tecnologias mais eficientes. A adsorção apresenta-se como alternativa para os tratamentos convencionais com boa eficiência na remoção de fármacos de efluentes contaminados. Esta Dissertação teve como objetivo o estudo da remoção do fármaco diclofenaco de sódio, de soluções aquosas, utilizando a argila Spectrogel tipo C como adsorvente. O planejamento experimental indicou que a massa de adsorvente e velocidade de agitação são variáveis estatisticamente significativas no processo de adsorção do diclofenaco de sódio. Os modelos de pseudoprimeira e pseudossegunda ordem, Boyd, Difusão Intrapartícula e Resistência à Transferência de Massa em Filme Externo foram ajustados aos resultados experimentais dos estudos cinéticos. O modelo de pseudoprimeira ordem apresentou mais ajuste aos dados cinéticos com coeficiente de determinação, R2 entre 0,976 ¿ 0,986 e desvio médio relativo, DMR, entre 17,5 ¿ 39,2% indicando que há uma resistência à transferência de massa. Esse resultado foi confirmado pelos altos valores de R2 obtidos pelo modelo de Resistência à Transferência de Massa em filme externo. Os ensaios de equilíbrios foram realizados nas temperaturas de 15, 30 e 50 ?C, e os modelos de Langmuir, Freundlich e Dubinin-Radushkevich ajustados aos resultados. A máxima capacidade adsortiva, obtida pelo modelo de Langmuir foi 0,133 mmol.L-1 (42,3 mg.g-1). O modelo de Freundlich apresentou mais ajuste para os resultados obtidos nas temperaturas de 15 e 30 °C e o modelo de D-R no estudo a 50 °C. O estudo termodinâmico indicou que o processo é endotérmico e espontâneo. As técnicas de caracterização BET e MEV indicaram que a argila possui uma área específica baixa com uma superfície irregular, respectivamente. Após a adsorção é observada uma maior homogeneidade na superfície do material indicando a formação de um filme de diclofenaco de sódio sobre a mesma. Isso se confirmou pelo DRX, que indica que a adsorção do diclofenaco de sódio deu-se na superfície da argila, uma vez que não foi observada uma variação significativa no espaçamento d001. A técnica de FTIR demonstrou a presença de diclofenaco de sódio pela detecção dos picos correspondentes a ligações C=O e C¿O do diclofenaco de sódio. Similarmente, o estudo termogravimétrico indicou a presença de diclofenaco pelo surgimento de um pico de degradação do mesmo em 450 ºC. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que essa argila pode ser utilizada na remoção do diclofenaco de sódio de soluçõesAbstract: The increase in the production and consumption of pharmaceutical products results in the constant generation of waste. Conventional treatments are not able to total eliminate these micro contaminants, making it imperative to research new, more efficient, technologies. Adsorption presents as an alternative for the conventional treatments with efficiency in the removal of drugs from contaminated effluents. The present work aims to study the removal of the diclofenac sodium drug from aqueous solutions using Spectrogel type C clay as an adsorbent. The kinetic models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Boyd, Intra-particle Diffusion and External Mass Transfer Resistance were adjusted to the experimental results. The experimental design showed that adsorbent mass and stirring velocity variables were statistically significant in the diclofenac sodium adsorption process. The pseudo-first order model presented the best fit to the kinetic data with R2, between 0.976 - 0.986 and relative mean deviation, DMR, between 17.5 - 39.2%, indicating that the mass transfer resistance occurs. A result confirmed by the External Mass Transfer Resistance model high R2 values. The equilibrium assays were performed at temperatures of 15, 30 and 50 °C, and Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were adjusted to the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity, obtained by the Langmuir model, was 0.133 mmol.L-1 (42.3 mg.g-1). The Freundlich model presented better adjustment with R2 between 0.956 - 0.973 and DMR between 9.63 - 26.9% for the evaluated temperatures. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the process is endothermic and spontaneous. BET and MEV characterization techniques indicated that the material has a low surface area with an irregular surface, respectively. After the adsorption process is observed a homogeneity in the surface of the material indicating the formation of a sodium diclofenac film, a result that collaborates with the obtained XRD that suggests that the adsorption of the diclofenaco of sodium occurred mostly in the material¿ surface once no significant variation in spacing d001 was observed. The determination of the functional groups present were obtained by the FTIR technique and the presence of diclofenac sodium was confirmed by the detection of two new peaks associated to the C=O and C¿O bonds. Similarly, the thermogravimetric study indicated the presence of diclofenac by the appearance of a degradation peak at 450 ºC. The results suggest that this clay may be used in the removal of sodium diclofenac from solutionsMestradoEngenharia QuímicaMestra em Engenharia Química2016/05007-1156463/2015-6FAPESPCAPESCNP

    Urban cold and Heat Island in the City of Bragança (Portugal)

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    The thermal environment is an important aspect of the urban environment because it affects the quality of life of urban residents and the energy use in buildings. Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Urban Cold Island (UCI) are complementary effects that are the consequence of cities’ structures interference with the local climate. This article presents results from five years of urban climate monitoring (2012–2016) in a small Portuguese city (Bragança) using a dense meteorological network of 23 locations covering a wide array of Local Climate Zones (LCZ), from urban areas to nearby rural areas. Results show the presence of both the UHI effect, from mid-afternoon until sunrise, andtheUCIaftersunrise,both being more intense under the dense midrise urban context and during the summer. Urban Green Spaces had an impact on both UHI and UCI, with an important role in cooling areas of the city during daytime in the summer. Other LCZs had less impact on local thermal conditions. Despite the small size of this city, both effects (UHI and UCI) had a relevant intensity with an impact on local climate conditions. Both effects tend to decrease in intensity with increasing wind speed and precipitation.This research was initially part of the Project BIOURB—“Diversidad Bioconstructiva Transfronteriza, Edificación Bioclimática y su adaptación a la Arquitectura y Urbanismo Moderno”, funded by FEDER (European Regional Development Fund), under the Transnational Co-Operation Programme Portugal-Spain, 2011–2013.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Northeast Organic Small Grain Disease and Insect Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of small grain diseases and insect pests were conducted in Vermont, Maine, New York, and Massachusetts during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. The purpose of scouting was to determine what insect pests and plant diseases are prevalent in organic small grain production in the Northeast

    Identification of trypanosomatids and blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sand fly species common in Sicily, Southern Italy

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    In this study, the presence of Leishmania DNA and blood feeding sources in phlebotomine sand fly species commonly present in Sicily were investigated. A total of 1,866 female sand flies including 176 blood fed specimens were sampled over two seasons in five selected sites in Sicily (southern Italy). Sergentomyia minuta (n = 1,264) and Phlebotomus perniciousus (n = 594) were the most abundant species at all the sites, while three other species from the genus Phlebotomus (i.e., P. sergenti n = 4, P. perfiliewi n = 3 and P. neglectus n = 1) were only sporadically captured. Twenty-eight out of the 1,866 (1.5%) sand flies tested positive for Leishmania spp. Leishmania tarentolae DNA was identified in 26 specimens of S. minuta, while the DNA of Leishmania donovani complex was detected in a single specimen each of S. minuta and P. perniciosus. Interestingly, seven S. minuta specimens (0.4%) tested positive for reptilian Trypanosoma sp. Blood sources were successfully identified in 108 out of 176 blood fed females. Twenty-seven out of 82 blood sources identified in fed females of P. perniciosus were represented by blood of wild rabbit, S. minuta mainly fed on humans (16/25), while the sole P. sergenti fed specimen took a blood meal on rat. Other vertebrate hosts including horse, goat, pig, dog, chicken, cow, cat and donkey were recognized as blood sources for P. perniciosus and S. minuta, and, surprisingly, no reptilian blood was identified in blood-fed S. minuta specimens. Results of this study agree with the well-known role of P. perniciosus as vector of L. infantum in the western Mediterranean; also, vector feeding preferences herein described support the hypothesis on the involvement of lagomorphs as sylvatic reservoirs of Leishmania. The detection of L. donovani complex in S. minuta, together with the anthropophilic feeding-behaviour herein observed, warrants further research to clarify the capacity of this species in the transmission of pathogens to humans and other animals.publishersversionpublishe

    Xanthene Derivatives Targeting Bacterial Efflux Pumps, Quorum-Sensing, and Biofilm Formation

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    The rise of multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria in nosocomial and health-care institutions is widespread and is currently recognized as a major medical challenge. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance, namely, quorum sensing (QS), biofilm formation, and efflux pumps, have been identified as critical biological processes in MDR bacteria. Following previous reports on the activity of phenothiazines against mechanisms of bacterial resistance, in this work we focus on the synthesis of xanthene derivatives aiming to discover phenothiazine bioisosteres with improved activity. Four compounds were obtained from the conjugation of xanthydrol with sulfonamides and aniline and were fully characterized. Their antibacterial activity was assessed considering their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, efflux pump inhibition, influence on biofilm formation and quorum-sensing (QS) inhibition. It was observed that the MIC of all the tested compounds was above 64 µg/mL The four 9-xanthenyl derivatives obtained, particularly the xanthene sulfonamide derivatives 3b and 3c, showed promising results on QS inhibition with a reduction of pigment production of 48 and 41 mm, and on biofilm formation with a reduction of 78 and 79%, respectively

    Determination of 5-fluorouracil in surface samples using SPE combined with HPLC- DAD

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    A simple and rapid SPE-HPLC-DAD method was developed for the determination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in surface samples. A C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) and a similar pre-column were used for the separation at 25 ºC, using 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer solution pH 4.7: methanol (95:5, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Under optimal conditions, the linearity was 0.9993, in a range of 25-100 µg/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 5 and 25 µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%) was below 15 % for the evaluation of precision and the mean recovery was 77 %. The extracting procedure followed HPLC analysis showed their applicability in order to examine 5- FU in surfaces samples. Moreover, it could be suggested that the developed method is an alternative in the monitoring of the occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents, once the analyte in question is considered an indicator for this purpose.Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aire
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