250 research outputs found

    Optimal Error Estimate of Upwind Scheme on Adaptive grid for Two Parameter Singular Perturbation Problem

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    A singularly perturbed convection-diffusion problem with two small parameters is considered. The problem is solved by an upwind finite difference operator on an appropriate non-uniform mesh constructed adaptively by equi-distributing a monitor function based on the solution. An error bound in the maximum norm is established theoretically with the error constants shown to be independent of both singular perturbation parameters. The normalized flux obtained via interpolating the polynomial from the numerical solution is also uniformly convergent. A numerical experiment illustrates in practice the result of convergence proved theoretically

    The impact of geopolitical risk on CO2 emissions inequality: Evidence from 38 developed and developing economies

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    This paper analyses the impact of geopolitical risk on carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions inequality in the panel dataset of 38 developed and developing economies from 1990 to 2019. At this juncture, the empirical models control for the effects of globalisation, capital-labour ratio, and per capita income on CO 2 emissions inequality. The panel cointegration tests show a significant long-run relationship among the related variables in the empirical models. The panel data regression estimations indicate that geopolitical risk, capital-labour ratio, and per capita income increase CO 2 emissions inequality. However, globalisation negatively affects CO 2 emissions inequality in the panel dataset of 38 developed and developing countries. The pairwise panel heterogeneous causality test results align with these benchmark results and indicate no reverse causality issue. Potential policy implications are also discussed.</p

    Internalization as a mediator of the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and body image attitudes and behaviors among young men in Sweden, US, UK, and Australia

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    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. We examined whether internalization of sociocultural body ideals mediated the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and drive for muscularity, leanness, and thinness in a sample of males from Sweden, US, UK, and Australia. Over six hundred young men [n= 142 (Sweden); n= 192 (US); n= 141 (UK); n= 160 (Australia)] completed an online survey that included assessments of masculine role norms, body image, and internalization of sociocultural body ideals. Path analyses confirmed internalization as a mediator between greater conformity to masculine norms and body image measures (drive for thinness, desire for leanness, and desire for muscularity) across the sample. However, significant cross-country differences in the strength of these mediation effects were found. Mediation effects among US, Australian, and Swedish males were comparable, whereas these effects were weaker in the UK sample. Findings confirmed the importance of internalization of sociocultural body ideals in the tested models

    Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the <it>"Mat Rempit"</it>.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± <it>SD </it>age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(<it>SD </it>± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.</p

    The construction of an idealised urban masculinity among men with concurrent sexual partners in a South African township

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    Background : The perspectives of heterosexual males who have large sexual networks comprising concurrent sexual partners and who engage in high-risk sexual behaviours are scarcely documented. Yet these perspectives are crucial to understanding the high HIV prevalence in South Africa where domestic violence, sexual assault and rape are alarmingly high, suggesting problematic gender dynamics. Objective : To explore the construction of masculinities and men&#x0027;s perceptions of women and their sexual relationships, among men with large sexual networks and concurrent partners. Design : This qualitative study was conducted in conjunction with a larger quantitative survey among men at high risk of HIV, using respondent-driven sampling to recruit participants, where long referral chains allowed us to reach far into social networks. Twenty in-depth, open-ended interviews with South African men who had multiple and concurrent sexual partners were conducted. A latent content analysis was used to explore the characteristics and dynamics of social and sexual relationships. Results : We found dominant masculine ideals characterised by overt economic power and multiple sexual partners. Reasons for large concurrent sexual networks were the perception that women were too empowered, could not be trusted, and lack of control over women. Existing masculine norms encourage concurrent sexual networks, ignoring the high risk of HIV transmission. Biological explanations and determinism further reinforced strong and negative perceptions of women and female sexuality, which helped polarise men&#x0027;s interpretation of gender constructions. Conclusions : Our results highlight the need to address sexuality and gender dynamics among men in growing, informal urban areas where HIV prevalence is strikingly high. Traditional structures that could work as focal entry points should be explored for effective HIV prevention aimed at normative change among hard-to-reach men in high-risk urban and largely informal contexts

    Hijacked then lost in translation:the plight of the recombinant host cell in membrane protein structural biology projects

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    Membrane protein structural biology is critically dependent upon the supply of high-quality protein. Over the last few years, the value of crystallising biochemically characterised, recombinant targets that incorporate stabilising mutations has been established. Nonetheless, obtaining sufficient yields of many recombinant membrane proteins is still a major challenge. Solutions are now emerging based on an improved understanding of recombinant host cells; as a 'cell factory' each cell is tasked with managing limited resources to simultaneously balance its own growth demands with those imposed by an expression plasmid. This review examines emerging insights into the role of translation and protein folding in defining high-yielding recombinant membrane protein production in a range of host cells

    Bulk and surface morphologies of ABC miktoarm star terpolymers comprised of PDMS, PI and PMMA arms

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    DIM miktoarm star copolymers, composed of polydimethylsiloxane [D], poly(1,4-isoprene) [I], and poly(methyl methacrylate) [M], were synthesized using a newly developed linking methodology with 4-allyl-1,1-diphenylethylene as a linking agent. The equilibrium bulk morphologies of the DIM stars were found to range from [6.6.6] tiling patterns to alternating lamellar and alternating cylindrical morphologies, as determined experimentally by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy and confirmed by dissipative particle dynamics and self-consistent field theory based arguments. The thin film morphologies, which differ from those found in the bulk, were identified by scanning electron microscopy, coupled with oxygen plasma etching. Square arrays of the PDMS nanodots and empty core cylinders were formed on silica after oxygen plasma removal of the poly(1,4-isoprene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) which generated nanostructured substrates decorated with these features readily observable
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