2,169 research outputs found

    Insights into the Fallback Path of Best-Effort Hardware Transactional Memory Systems

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    DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43659-3Current industry proposals for Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM) focus on best-effort solutions (BE-HTM) where hardware limits are imposed on transactions. These designs may show a significant performance degradation due to high contention scenarios and different hardware and operating system limitations that abort transactions, e.g. cache overflows, hardware and software exceptions, etc. To deal with these events and to ensure forward progress, BE-HTM systems usually provide a software fallback path to execute a lock-based version of the code. In this paper, we propose a hardware implementation of an irrevocability mechanism as an alternative to the software fallback path to gain insight into the hardware improvements that could enhance the execution of such a fallback. Our mechanism anticipates the abort that causes the transaction serialization, and stalls other transactions in the system so that transactional work loss is mini- mized. In addition, we evaluate the main software fallback path approaches and propose the use of ticket locks that hold precise information of the number of transactions waiting to enter the fallback. Thus, the separation of transactional and fallback execution can be achieved in a precise manner. The evaluation is carried out using the Simics/GEMS simulator and the complete range of STAMP transactional suite benchmarks. We obtain significant performance benefits of around twice the speedup and an abort reduction of 50% over the software fallback path for a number of benchmarks.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    Modular specification of forbidden states for supervisory control

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    A method for solving the forbidden state problem in the Supervisory Control Theory framework is presented. In many real-world applications both the plant and specification is given as a set of interacting automata or processes. In this work, we enable specification of forbidden states within such a modular structure. The aim with the method is to make each forbidden modular state combination uncontrollable. It is then possible to use efficient modular synthesis algorithms for calculation of a modular supervisor where the forbidden states are removed

    Do we need scan-matching in radar odometry?

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    There is a current increase in the development of "4D" Doppler-capable radar and lidar range sensors that produce 3D point clouds where all points also have information about the radial velocity relative to the sensor. 4D radars in particular are interesting for object perception and navigation in low-visibility conditions (dust, smoke) where lidars and cameras typically fail. With the advent of high-resolution Doppler-capable radars comes the possibility of estimating odometry from single point clouds, foregoing the need for scan registration which is error-prone in feature-sparse field environments. We compare several odometry estimation methods, from direct integration of Doppler/IMU data and Kalman filter sensor fusion to 3D scan-to-scan and scan-to-map registration, on three datasets with data from two recent 4D radars and two IMUs. Surprisingly, our results show that the odometry from Doppler and IMU data alone give similar or better results than 3D point cloud registration. In our experiments, the average position error can be as low as 0.3% over 1.8 and 4.5km trajectories. That allows accurate estimation of 6DOF ego-motion over long distances also in feature-sparse mine environments. These results are useful not least for applications of navigation with resource-constrained robot platforms in feature-sparse and low-visibility conditions such as mining, construction, and search & rescue operations.Comment: Preprint. Submitted to ICRA 2024. 7 pages, 11 figure

    Semantic-assisted 3D Normal Distributions Transform for scan registration in environments with limited structure

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    Point cloud registration is a core problem of many robotic applications, including simultaneous localization and mapping. The Normal Distributions Transform (NDT) is a method that fits a number of Gaussian distributions to the data points, and then uses this transform as an approximation of the real data, registering a relatively small number of distributions as opposed to the full point cloud. This approach contributes to NDT’s registration robustness and speed but leaves room for improvement in environments of limited structure. To address this limitation we propose a method for the introduction of semantic information extracted from the point clouds into the registration process. The paper presents a large scale experimental evaluation of the algorithm against NDT on two publicly available benchmark data sets. For the purpose of this test a measure of smoothness is used for the semantic partitioning of the point clouds. The results indicate that the proposed method improves the accuracy, robustness and speed of NDT registration, especially in unstructured environments, making NDT suitable for a wider range of applications

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    Planning transport sequences for flexible manufacturing systems

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    When designing a manufacturing system it is important to plan what the system should do. One important activity in most manufacturing systems is to transport products or resources between different positions. In a flexible manufacturing system it can be challenging to design and plan these transport operations due to their complex logical behavior. This paper presents a method that identifies, creates and visualizes these transport operations based on inputs from a standard virtual manufacturing tool and a high level product operation recipe. The planning of the created transport operations is transformed into a problem of finding a non-blocking solution for a discrete model of the product refinement

    Lidar-level localization with radar? The CFEAR approach to accurate, fast and robust large-scale radar odometry in diverse environments

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    This paper presents an accurate, highly efficient, and learning-free method for large-scale odometry estimation using spinning radar, empirically found to generalize well across very diverse environments -- outdoors, from urban to woodland, and indoors in warehouses and mines - without changing parameters. Our method integrates motion compensation within a sweep with one-to-many scan registration that minimizes distances between nearby oriented surface points and mitigates outliers with a robust loss function. Extending our previous approach CFEAR, we present an in-depth investigation on a wider range of data sets, quantifying the importance of filtering, resolution, registration cost and loss functions, keyframe history, and motion compensation. We present a new solving strategy and configuration that overcomes previous issues with sparsity and bias, and improves our state-of-the-art by 38%, thus, surprisingly, outperforming radar SLAM and approaching lidar SLAM. The most accurate configuration achieves 1.09% error at 5Hz on the Oxford benchmark, and the fastest achieves 1.79% error at 160Hz.Comment: Accepted for publication in Transactions on Robotics. Edited 2022-11-07: Updated affiliation and citatio

    Switch-based packing technique to reduce traffic and latency in token coherence

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    Token Coherence is a cache coherence protocol able to simultaneously capture the best attributes of traditional protocols: low latency and scalability. However it may lose these desired features when (1) several nodes contend for the same memory block and (2) nodes write highly-shared blocks. The first situation leads to the issue of simultaneous broadcast requests which threaten the protocol scalability. The second situation results in a burst of token responses directed to the writer, which turn it into a bottleneck and increase the latency. To address these problems, we propose a switch-based packing technique able to encapsulate several messages (while in transit) into just one. Its application to the simultaneous broadcasts significantly reduces their bandwidth requirements (up to 45%). Its application to token responses lowers their transmission latency (by 70%). Thus, the packing technique decreases both the latency and coherence traffic, thereby improving system performance (about 15% of reduction in runtime). © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.This work was partially supported by the Spanish MEC and MICINN, as well as European Commission FEDER funds, under Grants CSD2006-00046 and TIN2009-14475-C04-01.Cuesta Sáez, BA.; Robles Martínez, A.; Duato Marín, JF. (2012). Switch-based packing technique to reduce traffic and latency in token coherence. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing. 72(3):409-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpdc.2011.11.010S40942372
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