457 research outputs found

    MPC for Robot Manipulators with Integral Sliding Modes Generation

    Get PDF
    This paper deals with the design of a robust hierarchical multiloop control scheme to solve motion control problems for robot manipulators. The key elements of the proposed control approach are the inverse dynamics-based feedback linearized robotic multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system and the combination of a model predictive control (MPC) module with an integral sliding mode (ISM) controller. The ISM internal control loop has the role to compensate the matched uncertainties due to unmodeled dynamics, which are not rejected by the inverse dynamics approach. The external loop is closed relying on the MPC, which guarantees an optimal evolution of the controlled system while fulfiling state and input constraints. The motivation for using ISM, apart from its property of providing robustness to the scheme with respect to a wide class of uncertainties, is also given by its capability of enforcing sliding modes of the controlled system since the initial time instant, allowing one to solve the MPC optimization problem relying on a set of linearized decoupled single-input-single-output (SISO) systems that are not affected by uncertain terms. The proposal has been verified and validated in simulation, relying on a model of a COMAU Smart3-S2 industrial robot manipulator, identified on the basis of real data

    Hierarchical Model Predictive/Sliding Mode control of nonlinear constrained uncertain systems

    Get PDF
    This paper presents an overview of some hierarchical control schemes composed by a high level Model Predictive Control (MPC) and a low level Sliding Mode Control (SMC). The latter is realized by using the so-called Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) control approach and is meant to reject the matched disturbances affecting the plant, thus providing a system with reduced uncertainty for the MPC design. Both continuous and discrete-time solutions are discussed in the paper. Moreover, assuming the presence of a network in the control loop, a networked version of the control scheme is presented. It is a model-based event-triggered MPC/ISM control scheme aimed at minimizing the packets transmission. The input-to-state (practical) stability properties of the proposed approaches are also addressed in the paper

    Asynchronous networked MPC with ISM for uncertain nonlinear systems

    Get PDF
    A model-based event-triggered control scheme for nonlinear constrained continuous-time uncertain systems in networked configuration is presented in this paper. It is based on the combined use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) control, and it is oriented to reduce the packets transmission over the network both in the direct path and in the feedback path, in order to avoid network congestion. The key elements of the proposed control scheme are the ISM local control law, the MPC remote controller, a smart sensor and a smart actuator, both containing a copy of the nominal model of the plant. The role of the ISM control law is to compensate matched uncertainties, without amplifying the unmatched ones. The MPC controller with tightened constraints generates the control component oriented to comply with state and control requirements, and is asynchronous since the underlying constrained optimization problem is solved only when a triggering event occurs. In the paper, the robustness properties of the controlled system are theoretically analyzed, proving the regional input-tostate practical stability of the overall control scheme

    Model-based event-triggered robust MPC/ISM

    Get PDF
    A model-based event-triggered control scheme based on the combined use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) control is proposed in this paper. The aim is to reduce to a minimum the number of transmissions of the plant state over the network, in order to alleviate delays and packet loss induced by the network overload, while guaranteeing robust stability and constraints fulfillment. The presented control scheme includes a model-based controller and a smart sensor, both containing a copy of the nominal model of the plant. The sensor intelligence is provided by a triggering condition, which enables to determine when it is necessary to transmit the measured state and to update the nominal model. The controller includes an ISM component, which has the role of compensating the uncertainties, and a MPC term which optimizes the system evolution. The control system performance are assessed in simulation relying on an illustrative mechanical example

    A robust MPC/ISM hierarchical multi-loop control scheme for robot manipulators

    Get PDF
    In this paper, we propose a robust hierarchical multi-loop control scheme aimed at solving motion control problems for robot manipulators. The kernel of the proposed control scheme is the inverse dynamics-based feedback linearized robotic MIMO system. A first loop is closed relying on an Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) controller, so that matched disturbances and uncertain terms due to unmodelled dynamics, which are not rejected by the inverse dynamics approach, are suitably compensated. An external loop based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) optimizes the evolution of the controlled system in the respect of state and input constraints. The motivation for using ISM, apart from its property of providing robustness to the scheme in front of a significant class of uncertainties, is also given by its capability of enforcing sliding modes of the controlled system since the initial time instant, which is a clear advantage in the considered case, allowing one to solve the model predictive control optimization problem relying on a set of linearized decoupled SISO systems which are not affected by uncertain terms. As a consequence, a standard MPC can be used and the resulting control scheme is characterized by a low computational load with respect to conventional nonlinear robust solutions. The verification and the validation of our proposal have been carried out with satisfactory results in simulation, relying on a model of an industrial robot manipulator with injected noise, to better emulate a realistic set up. Both the model and the noise have been identified on the basis of real data. ©2013 IEEE

    A hierarchical Naïve Bayes Model for handling sample heterogeneity in classification problems: an application to tissue microarrays

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty often affects molecular biology experiments and data for different reasons. Heterogeneity of gene or protein expression within the same tumor tissue is an example of biological uncertainty which should be taken into account when molecular markers are used in decision making. Tissue Microarray (TMA) experiments allow for large scale profiling of tissue biopsies, investigating protein patterns characterizing specific disease states. TMA studies deal with multiple sampling of the same patient, and therefore with multiple measurements of same protein target, to account for possible biological heterogeneity. The aim of this paper is to provide and validate a classification model taking into consideration the uncertainty associated with measuring replicate samples. RESULTS: We propose an extension of the well-known Naïve Bayes classifier, which accounts for biological heterogeneity in a probabilistic framework, relying on Bayesian hierarchical models. The model, which can be efficiently learned from the training dataset, exploits a closed-form of classification equation, thus providing no additional computational cost with respect to the standard Naïve Bayes classifier. We validated the approach on several simulated datasets comparing its performances with the Naïve Bayes classifier. Moreover, we demonstrated that explicitly dealing with heterogeneity can improve classification accuracy on a TMA prostate cancer dataset. CONCLUSION: The proposed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes classifier can be conveniently applied in problems where within sample heterogeneity must be taken into account, such as TMA experiments and biological contexts where several measurements (replicates) are available for the same biological sample. The performance of the new approach is better than the standard Naïve Bayes model, in particular when the within sample heterogeneity is different in the different classes

    Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) induces Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) expression in hepatic HepG2 cell line

    Get PDF
    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway activated by proinflammatory cytokines, including the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-\u3b1). SOCS3 is also implicated in hypertriglyceridemia associated to insulin resistance. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels are frequently found to be positively correlated to insulin resistance and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides concentrations. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of TNF-\u3b1 and JAK/STAT pathway on de novo lipogenesis and PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells. TNF-\u3b1 induced both SOCS3 and PCSK9 in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was inhibited by transfection with siRNA anti-STAT3, suggesting the involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway. Retroviral overexpression of SOCS3 in HepG2 cells (HepG2SOCS3) strongly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and induced PCSK9 mRNA and protein, with no effect on its promoter activity and mRNA stability. Consistently, siRNA anti-SOCS3 reduced PCSK9 mRNA levels, whereas an opposite effect was observed with siRNA anti- STAT3. In addition, HepG2SOCS3 express higher mRNA levels of key enzymes involved in the de novo lipogenesis, such as fattyacid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, and apoB. These responses were associated with a significant increase of SCD-1 protein, activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1), accumulation of cellular triglycerides, and secretion of apoB. HepG2SOCS3 show lower phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) Tyr896 and Akt Ser473 in response to insulin. Finally, insulin stimulation produced an additive effect with SOCS3 overexpression, further inducing PCSK9, SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase, and apoB mRNA. In conclusion, our data candidate PCSK9 as a gene involved in lipid metabolism regulated by proinflammatory cytokine TNF- in a SOCS3-dependent manner

    High Density Lipoproteins Inhibit Oxidative Stress-Induced Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Get PDF
    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress can play a role in the pathogenesis and the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is higher in PCa cells compared to normal prostate epithelial cells and this increase is proportional to the aggressiveness of the phenotype. Since high density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to exert antioxidant activities, their ability to reduce ROS levels and the consequent impact on cell proliferation was tested in normal and PCa cell lines. HDL significantly reduced basal and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in normal, androgen receptor (AR)-positive and AR-null PCa cell lines. AR, scavenger receptor BI and ATP binding cassette G1 transporter were not involved. In addition, HDL completely blunted H2O2-induced increase of cell proliferation, through their capacity to prevent the H2O2-induced shift of cell cycle distribution from G0/G1 towards G2/M phase. Synthetic HDL, made of the two main components of plasma-derived HDL (apoA-I and phosphatidylcholine) and which are under clinical development as anti-atherosclerotic agents, retained the ability of HDL to inhibit ROS production in PCa cells. Collectively, HDL antioxidant activity limits cell proliferation induced by ROS in AR-positive and AR-null PCa cell lines, thus supporting a possible role of HDL against PCa progression

    Characterisation of individual ferritin response in patients receiving chelation therapy

    Get PDF
    AIM: To develop a drug-disease model describing iron overload and its effect on ferritin response in patients affected by transfusion-dependent haemoglobinopathies and investigate the contribution of interindividual differences in demographic and clinical factors on chelation therapy with deferiprone or deferasirox. METHODS: Individual and mean serum ferritin data were retrieved from 13 published studies in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies receiving deferiprone or deferasirox. A nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach was used to characterise iron homeostasis and serum ferritin production taking into account annual blood consumption, baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. The effect of chelation therapy was parameterised as an increase in the iron elimination rate. Internal and external validation procedures were used to assess model performance across different study populations. RESULTS: An indirect response model was identified, including baseline ferritin concentrations and annual blood consumption as covariates. The effect of chelation on iron elimination rate was characterised by a linear function, with different slopes for each drug [0.0109 (90% CI: 0.0079-0.0131) vs. 0.0013 (90% CI: 0.0008-0.0018) L/mg.month]. In addition to drug-specific differences in the magnitude of the ferritin response, simulation scenarios indicate that ferritin elimination rates depend on ferritin concentrations at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling of serum ferritin following chronic blood transfusion enabled the characterisation of drug-induced changes in iron elimination rate and ferritin production. The use of a semi-mechanistic parameterisation allowed us to disentangle disease-specific factors from drug-specific properties. Despite comparable chelation mechanisms, deferiprone appears to have a significantly larger effect on the iron elimination rate than deferasirox

    A Perl procedure for protein identification by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>One of the topics of major interest in proteomics is protein identification. Protein identification can be achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum of a protein sample through different approaches. One of them, called Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF), combines mass spectrometry (MS) data with searching strategies in a suitable database of known protein to provide a list of candidate proteins ranked by a score. To this aim, several algorithms and software tools have been proposed. However, the scoring methods and mainly the statistical evaluation of the results can be significantly improved.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In this work, a Perl procedure for protein identification by PMF, called MsPI (Mass spectrometry Protein Identification), is presented. The implemented scoring methods were derived from the literature. MsPI implements a strategy to remove the contaminant masses present in the acquired spectra. Moreover, MsPI includes a statistical method to assign to each candidate protein, in addition to the scoring value, a p-value. Results obtained by MsPI on a dataset of 10 protein samples were compared with those achieved using two other software tools, i.e. Piums and Mascot. Piums implements one of the scoring methods available in MsPI, while Mascot is one of the most frequently used software tools in the protein identification field. MsPI scripts are available for downloading on the web site <url>http://aimed11.unipv.it/MsPI</url>.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The performances of MsPI seem to be better than those of Piums and Mascot. In fact, on the considered dataset, MsPI includes in its candidate proteins list, the "true" proteins nine times over ten, whereas Piums includes in its list the "true" proteins only four time over ten. Even if Mascot also correctly includes in the candidates list the "true" proteins nine times over ten, it provides longer candidate lists, therefore increasing the number of false positives when the molecular weight of the proteins in the sample is approximatively known (e.g. by the 1-D/2-D electrophoresis gel). Moreover, being MsPI a Perl tool, it can be easily extended and customized by the final users.</p
    • …
    corecore