675 research outputs found

    Infection by Mycobacterium caprae in three cattle herds in Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy

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    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a contagious chronic disease associated with progressive emaciation (starvation) and tubercles (granuloma) formation commonly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In cattle, M. caprae may also be responsible for bTB. In EU, human tuberculosis due to M. bovis had a notification rate of 0.04 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017, but data did not include M. caprae human infections. From September 2018 to April 2019, bTB outbreaks were investigated in three neighbouring cattle herds in Parma province, Northern Italy. Parma municipality belongs to an officially free of bovine tuberculosis (OTF) Italian region. Official testing on cattle herds, performed every three years as legally required, revealed no positive animals. Tubercular lesions were found during the post mortem (PM) examination of slaughtered cattle and M. caprae genotype SB0418/VNTR 4,3,5,3,4,5,2,2,4,3,15,5 was isolated. This report confirms the crucial importance of PM veterinary inspection at slaughterhouse, despite the OTF status of cattle herds

    La psichiatria incontra la promozione della salute. Un’esperienza presso la ASST di Mantova

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    In questo contributo gli autori descrivono un’esperienza di prevenzione sanitaria attraverso la promozione dell’attività motoria che ù stata avviata da alcuni anni nel Dipartimento di Salute Mentale della ASST di Mantova. Il progetto ù stato ispirato dalle evidenze di letteratura sul ruolo dell’attività fisica nel mantenimento dello stato di salute e nel miglioramento di alcune patologie, con particolare rilievo nell’ambito psichiatric

    Multifunctional nanoassemblies target bacterial lipopolysaccharides for enhanced antimicrobial DNA delivery

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    The development of new therapeutic strategies against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge for pharmaceutical research. In this respect, it is increasingly recognized that an efficient treatment for resistant bacterial infections should combine antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we explore the multifunctional therapeutic potential of nanostructured self-assemblies from a cationic bolaamphiphile, which target bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and associates with an anti-bacterial nucleic acid to form nanoplexes with therapeutic efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria. To understand the mechanistic details of these multifunctional antimicrobial-anti-inflammatory properties, we performed a fundamental study, comparing the interaction of these nanostructured therapeutics with synthetic biomimetic bacterial membranes and live bacterial cells. Combining a wide range of experimental techniques (Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Microfluidics, NMR, LPS binding assays), we demonstrate that the LPS targeting capacity of the bolaamphiphile self-assemblies, comparable to that exerted by Polymixin B, is a key feature of these nanoplexes and one that permits entry of therapeutic nucleic acids in Gram-negative bacteria. These findings enable a new approach to the design of efficient multifunctional therapeutics with combined antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and have therefore the potential to broadly impact fundamental and applied research on self-assembled nano-sized antibacterials for antibiotic resistant infections

    Parental occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields and risk of leukaemia in the offspring : findings from the Childhood Leukaemia International Consortium (CLIC)

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    OBJECTIVES: Previously published studies on parental occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in their offspring were inconsistent. We therefore evaluated this question within the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHODS: We pooled 11 case-control studies including 9723 childhood leukaemia cases and 17 099 controls. Parental occupational ELF-MF exposure was estimated by linking jobs to an ELF-MF job-exposure matrix (JEM). Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs in pooled analyses and meta-analyses. RESULTS: ORs from pooled analyses for paternal ELF-MF exposure >0.2 microtesla (”T) at conception were 1.04 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.13) for ALL and 1.06 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.29) for AML, compared with ≀0.2 ”T. Corresponding ORs for maternal ELF-MF exposure during pregnancy were 1.00 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.12) for ALL and 0.85 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.16) for AML. No trends of increasing ORs with increasing exposure level were evident. Furthermore, no associations were observed in the meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this large international dataset applying a comprehensive quantitative JEM, we did not find any associations between parental occupational ELF-MF exposure and childhood leukaemia

    Parental Tobacco Smoking and Acute Myeloid Leukemia : The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

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    The association between tobacco smoke and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is well established in adults but not in children. Individual-level data on parental cigarette smoking were obtained from 12 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC, 1974-2012), including 1,330 AML cases diagnosed at age <15 years and 13,169 controls. We conducted pooled analyses of CLIC studies, as well as meta-analyses of CLIC and non-CLIC studies. Overall, maternal smoking before, during, or after pregnancy was not associated with childhood AML; there was a suggestion, however, that smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk in Hispanics (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 3.61) but not in other ethnic groups. By contrast, the odds ratios for paternal lifetime smoking were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.62) and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51) in pooled and meta-analyses, respectively. Overall, increased risks from 1.2- to 1.3-fold were observed for pre- and postnatal smoking (P < 0.05), with higher risks reported for heavy smokers. Associations with paternal smoking varied by histological type. Our analyses suggest an association between paternal smoking and childhood AML. The association with maternal smoking appears limited to Hispanic children, raising questions about ethnic differences in tobacco-related exposures and biological mechanisms, as well as study-specific biases

    Nonchromosomal birth defects and risk of childhood acute leukemia : An assessment in 15 000 leukemia cases and 46 000 controls from the Childhood Cancer and Leukemia International Consortium

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    Although recent studies have demonstrated associations between nonchromosomal birth defects and several pediatric cancers, less is known about their role on childhood leukemia susceptibility. Using data from the Childhood Cancer and Leukemia International Consortium, we evaluated associations between nonchromosomal birth defects and childhood leukemia. Pooling consortium data from 18 questionnaire-based and three registry-based case-control studies across 13 countries, we used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between a spectrum of birth defects and leukemia. Our analyses included acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 13 115) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 2120) cases, along with 46 172 controls. We used the false discovery rate to account for multiple comparisons. In the questionnaire-based studies, the prevalence of birth defects was 5% among cases vs 4% in controls, whereas, in the registry-based studies, the prevalence was 11% among cases vs 7% in controls. In pooled adjusted analyses, there were several notable associations, including (1) digestive system defects and ALL (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.46-4.98); (2) congenital anomalies of the heart and circulatory system and AML (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.81-4.52) and (3) nervous system defects and AML (OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.50-11.89). Effect sizes were generally larger in registry-based studies. Overall, our results could point to novel genetic and environmental factors associated with birth defects that could also increase leukemia susceptibility. Additionally, differences between questionnaire- and registry-based studies point to the importance of complementary sources of birth defect phenotype data when exploring these associations

    Linguistic profile automated characterisation in pluripotential clinical high-risk mental state (CHARMS) conditions: methodology of a multicentre observational study

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    Introduction: Language is usually considered the social vehicle of thought in intersubjective communications. However, the relationship between language and high- order cognition seems to evade this canonical and unidirectional description (ie, the notion of language as a simple means of thought communication). In recent years, clinical high at-risk mental state (CHARMS) criteria (evolved from the Ultra-High-Risk paradigm) and the introduction of the Clinical Staging system have been proposed to address the dynamicity of early psychopathology. At the same time, natural language processing (NLP) techniques have greatly evolved and have been successfully applied to investigate different neuropsychiatric conditions. The combination of at-risk mental state paradigm, clinical staging system and automated NLP methods, the latter applied on spoken language transcripts, could represent a useful and convenient approach to the problem of early psychopathological distress within a transdiagnostic risk paradigm. Methods and analysis: Help-seeking young people presenting psychological distress (CHARMS+/− and Clinical Stage 1a or 1b; target sample size for both groups n=90) will be assessed through several psychometric tools and multiple speech analyses during an observational period of 1-year, in the context of an Italian multicentric study. Subjects will be enrolled in different contexts: Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa—IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy; Mental Health Department—territorial mental services (ASL 3—Genoa), Genoa, Italy; and Mental Health Department—territorial mental services (AUSL—Piacenza), Piacenza, Italy. The conversion rate to full-blown psychopathology (CS 2) will be evaluated over 2 years of clinical observation, to further confirm the predictive and discriminative value of CHARMS criteria and to verify the possibility of enriching them with several linguistic features, derived from a fine-grained automated linguistic analysis of speech. Ethics and dissemination: The methodology described in this study adheres to ethical principles as formulated in the Declaration of Helsinki and is compatible with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-good clinical practice. The research protocol was reviewed and approved by two different ethics committees (CER Liguria approval code: 591/2020—id.10993; Comitato Etico dell’Area Vasta Emilia Nord approval code: 2022/0071963). Participants will provide their written informed consent prior to study enrolment and parental consent will be needed in the case of participants aged less than 18 years old. Experimental results will be carefully shared through publication in peer- reviewed journals, to ensure proper data reproducibility. Trial registration number DOI:10.17605/OSF.IO/BQZTN

    Psychosocial impact of undergoing prostate cancer screening for men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

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    OBJECTIVES: To report the baseline results of a longitudinal psychosocial study that forms part of the IMPACT study, a multi-national investigation of targeted prostate cancer (PCa) screening among men with a known pathogenic germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. PARTICPANTS AND METHODS: Men enrolled in the IMPACT study were invited to complete a questionnaire at collaborating sites prior to each annual screening visit. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and the following measures: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer, Cancer Worry Scale-Revised, risk perception and knowledge. The results of the baseline questionnaire are presented. RESULTS: A total of 432 men completed questionnaires: 98 and 160 had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, respectively, and 174 were controls (familial mutation negative). Participants' perception of PCa risk was influenced by genetic status. Knowledge levels were high and unrelated to genetic status. Mean scores for the HADS and SF-36 were within reported general population norms and mean IES scores were within normal range. IES mean intrusion and avoidance scores were significantly higher in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers than in controls and were higher in men with increased PCa risk perception. At the multivariate level, risk perception contributed more significantly to variance in IES scores than genetic status. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the psychosocial profile of men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations undergoing PCa screening. No clinically concerning levels of general or cancer-specific distress or poor quality of life were detected in the cohort as a whole. A small subset of participants reported higher levels of distress, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals offering PCa screening to identify these risk factors and offer additional information and support to men seeking PCa screening

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð„with constraintsð ð ð„ „ ðandðŽð„ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis