559 research outputs found

    Au2phen and Auoxo6, Two Dinuclear Oxo-Bridged Gold({III}) Compounds, Induce Apoptotic Signaling in Human Ovarian A2780 Cancer Cells

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    Au(2)phen ((2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(2)Au(2)(¬Ķ-O)(2))(PF(6))(2) and Auoxo6 ((6,6‚Ä≤-dimethyl-2,2‚Ä≤-bipyridine)(2)Au(2)(¬Ķ-O)(2))(PF(6))(2) are two structurally related gold(III) complexes that were previously reported to display relevant and promising anticancer properties in vitro toward a large number of human cancer cell lines. To expand the knowledge on the molecular mechanisms through which these gold(III) complexes trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, further studies have been performed using A2780 ovarian cancer cells as reference models. For comparative purposes, parallel studies were carried out on the gold(III) complex AuL12 (dibromo(ethylsarcosinedithiocarbamate)gold(III)), whose proapoptotic profile had been earlier characterized in several cancer cell lines. Our results pointed out that all these gold(III) compounds manifest a significant degree of similarity in their cellular and proapoptotic effects; the main observed perturbations consist of potent thioredoxin reductase inhibition, disruption of the cell redox balance, impairment of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induction of associated metabolic changes. In addition, evidence was gained of the remarkable contribution of ASK1 (apoptosis-signal-regulating kinase-1) and AKT pathways to gold(III)-induced apoptotic signaling. Overall, the observed effects may be traced back to gold(III) reduction and subsequent formation and release of gold(I) species that are able to bind and inhibit several enzymes responsible for the intracellular redox homeostasis, in particular the selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase

    Chemical Modification of Auranofin Yields a New Family of Anticancer Drug Candidates: The Gold(I) Phosphite Analogues

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    A panel of four novel gold(I) complexes, inspired by the clinically established gold drug auranofin (1-Thio-ő≤-D-glucopyranosatotriethylphosphine gold-2,3,4,6-tetraacetate), was prepared and characterized. All these compounds feature the replacement of the triethylphosphine ligand of the parent compound auranofin with a trimethylphosphite ligand. The linear coordination around the gold(I) center is completed by Cl‚ąí, Br‚ąí, I‚ąí or by the thioglucose tetraacetate ligand (SAtg). The in-solution behavior of these gold compounds as well as their interactions with some representative model proteins were comparatively analyzed through 31PNMR and ESI-MS measurements. Notably, all panel compounds turned out to be stable in aqueous media, but significant differences with respect to auranofin were disclosed in their interactions with a few leading proteins. In addition, the cytotoxic effects produced by the panel compounds toward A2780, A2780R and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells were quantitated and found to be in the low micromolar range, since the IC50 of all compounds was found to be between 1 őľM and 10 őľM. Notably, these novel gold complexes showed large and similar inhibition capabilities towards the key enzyme thioredoxin reductase, again comparable to those of auranofin. The implications of these results for the discovery of new and effective gold-based anticancer agents are discussed

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A search is presented for new particles produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, using events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb(-1), collected in 2017-2018 with the CMS detector. Machine learning techniques are used to define separate categories for events with narrow jets from initial-state radiation and events with large-radius jets consistent with a hadronic decay of a W or Z boson. A statistical combination is made with an earlier search based on a data sample of 36 fb(-1), collected in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed with respect to the standard model background expectation determined from control samples in data. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the branching fraction of an invisible decay of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on simplified models of dark matter, on first-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to quarks and neutrinos, and on models with large extra dimensions. Several of the new limits, specifically for spin-1 dark matter mediators, pseudoscalar mediators, colored mediators, and leptoquarks, are the most restrictive to date.Peer reviewe

    Combined searches for the production of supersymmetric top quark partners in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV