42 research outputs found

    Lifestyles of Populations of Extractive Reserves of Rond√īnia - Brazil

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    Extractive Reserves (Resex) are a category of sustainable use conservation unit that aims to protect the livelihoods and culture of their populations, and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources. This article aims to analyze a set of social, economic and environmental indicators aimed at the sustainable development of the populations, protected areas and the ‚ÄúExtractive Reserves‚ÄĚ located in the State of Rond√īnia ‚Äď Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, descriptive and analytical field study with a multi-method approach, conducted in 2017 and 2018, where the different ways of life and the dynamics in the construction of spaces of these populations were observed and experienced, of (re)consideration of individuals in environmental, social and economic policies and to form the basis for the¬† interdisciplinary approaches,¬† in the study indicators and in¬† the intervention and management of the territory and its resources. The results showed that the Resex populations need a broader view of the State and Society, because their lives are, with few perspectives, one can perceive the vulnerability of many in relation to poverty, lack of basic assistance and consequently the generation of social exclusion. In this sense, the analysis of the study indicators and the interconnections with authors on the socio-environmental and economic scenarios of the Amazon identified that the Resex public policies need to be rethought in order to build a fairer and more equitable society

    Public slaughterhouses and environmental health in Sergipe

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    A incorpora√ß√£o da tem√°tica ambiental na sa√ļde p√ļblica fez florescer mais recentemente a express√£o sa√ļde ambiental, relacionada √† degrada√ß√£o do meio ambiente na escala mundial, como reflexo da atividade humana cujas consequ√™ncias afetam a sa√ļde da popula√ß√£o. A produ√ß√£o de alimentos para consumo humano, al√©m de afetar o meio natural, pode afetar, tamb√©m, a sa√ļde humana, devido ao processo de produ√ß√£o e comercializa√ß√£o. O abate de gado bovino, uma das principais fontes de prote√≠na animal utilizada no Brasil, embora tenha legisla√ß√£o reguladora, muitas vezes √© uma atividade que degrada o meio ambiente e compromete a sa√ļde dos trabalhadores da cadeia produtiva e dos consumidores. Este estudo teve como objetivo geral identificar e avaliar os riscos ao meio ambiente e a sa√ļde humana em decorr√™ncia da implanta√ß√£o e opera√ß√£o de matadouros p√ļblicos nos 75 munic√≠pios do Estado de Sergipe. Para o alcance desse objetivo, foram quantificados os matadouros municipais implantados e em opera√ß√£o no Estado, analisadas as condi√ß√Ķes f√≠sicas, sanit√°rias e tecnol√≥gicas, a exist√™ncia de licenciamento ambiental e de supervis√£o veterin√°ria do gado e das condi√ß√Ķes de abate e armazenamento da carne. Os dados foram levantados por observa√ß√£o direta em campo e junto ao cadastro da Administra√ß√£o Estadual do Meio Ambiente de Sergipe. O estudo concluiu haver danos significativos ao meio natural, especialmente aos recursos h√≠dricos e risco bastante alto √† sa√ļde dos trabalhadores no matadouro e dos consumidores que recebem um produto sem controle de qualidade e sem qualquer tipo de inspe√ß√£o sanit√°ria.The incorporation of environmental issues to the public health field resulted, more recently, in the flourishing of the term environmental health, which is related to environmental degradation on a global scale, as a result of human activity whose consequences affect population's health. Food production for human consumption affects the environment and can also affect human health through the production and marketing processes. Cattle slaughter, a major source of animal protein used in Brazil, in spite of regulatory legislation, is often an activity that degrades the environment and jeopardizes the health of workers employed in the production chain and consumers. This study aimed to identify and evaluate risks to the environment and to human health due to the implantation and operation of public slaughterhouses in all the 75 municipalities of the state of Sergipe. To achieve this goal, a census was made of the municipal slaughterhouses operating in the state, their physical, sanitary and technological conditions were examined, as well as livestock slaughtering and meat storage conditions and, the existence of environmental licensing and veterinary supervision. Data were gathered by direct observation in the field and through the existing registers at Sergipe's Environment Administration offices (Administra√ß√£o Estadual do Meio Ambiente de Sergipe). The study concluded that there is significant damage to natural environment, particularly water resources and very high risk to the health of slaughterhouse workers and of consumers who receive a product without quality control and without any sanitary inspection

    Perfil Epidemiológico de Portadores do Vírus da Imunodeficiêcia Humana e Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida no estado de Sergipe, 2007-2012

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    A S√≠ndrome da Imunodefici√™ncia Adquirida (AIDS) √© uma doen√ßa cr√īnica caracterizada por profunda imunossupress√£o provocada pela deple√ß√£o dos linf√≥citos TCD4+, gl√≥bulos brancos do sistema imunol√≥gico, sendo o v√≠rus da imunodefici√™ncia humana (HIV) o seu agente etiol√≥gico. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o perfil epidemiol√≥gico de pacientes HIV/AIDS atendidos em Servi√ßo de Atendimento Especializado (SAE) de Sergipe, no per√≠odo de 2007 a 2012. Os dados coletados no SAE foram analisados por meio do programa SPSS 21.0, sendo calculados Odds ratio e correla√ß√£o de Pearson (őĪ=5%). Entre 1202 indiv√≠duos, o perfil predominante foi masculino, de 21-50 anos, com n√≠vel de instru√ß√£o entre ensino b√°sico e fundamental e parceiros sexuais fixos/n√£o fixos. Aproximadamente 63,3% realizou terapia antirretroviral, sendo que 66,2% apresentaram taxas de linf√≥citos TCD4+ > 350 c√©lulas/mm3 e 41,8% carga viral < limite m√≠nimo. Entre os protozo√°rios/helmintos intestinais, os mais comuns foram os comensais. O perfil epidemiol√≥gico dos portadores de HIV/AIDS estudados apresentou-se concordante com o perfil da epidemia em outras localidades do Brasil. Observou-se a heterossexualiza√ß√£o como padr√£o da infec√ß√£o atual e seu cont√°gio sugerido pelas pr√°ticas sexuais. As mulheres apresentam maior risco em desenvolver quadros mais graves de imunodefici√™ncia quando comparados com os homens sergipanos atendidos no CEMAR

    Copepods Notodiaptomus sp. Kiefer (Crustacea, Calanoida) naturally infected by metacestodes in the Juqueri reservoir, S√£o Paulo, Brazil

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    The aim of this work was to identify the components of zooplankton that act as intermediate hosts of cestodes. One hundred and ninety four copepods of the suborder Calanoida, 317 copepods of the suborder Cyclopoida and 4240 cladocerans were collected in the Juqueri reservoir, in the state of S√£o Paulo, from January to August, 2003. Only Copepods Calanoida of the genus Notodiaptomus sp. Kiefer were found to be infected and contained two distinct forms of metacestodes. The metacestodes, denominated Met 1 (order Proteocephalidea) and Met 2 (order Cyclophyllidea), had the following rates of prevalence and mean intensities of infection: Met 1 - 2.06% and 64 larvae/copepod and Met 2 - 0.52% and one larvae/copepod. The positive copepods were collected at the margins of the reservoir during the day. This finding suggest that parasitism may lead to a change in the behavior of the copepods and make them more susceptible to predation in shallow water.Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar os componentes do zoopl√Ęncton que atuam como hospedeiros intermedi√°rios de cest√≥deos. Foram examinados 194 cop√©podos da subordem Calanoida, 317 cop√©podos da subordem Cyclopoida e 4240 clad√≥ceros coletados no reservat√≥rio do Juqueri, Estado de S√£o Paulo, entre janeiro e agosto de 2003. Apenas cop√©podos Calanoida do g√™nero Notodiaptomus sp. Kiefer encontravam-se positivos, sendo relatada duas formas morfol√≥gicas distintas de metacest√≥deos. Os metacest√≥deos, denominados Met 1 (Proteocephalidea) e Met 2 (Cyclophyllidea) apresentaram as seguintes preval√™ncias e intensidades m√©dias de infec√ß√£o: Met 1 - 2,06% e 64 larvas/cop√©podo e Met 2 - 0,52% e uma larva/cop√©podo. Os cop√©podos positivos foram coletados na regi√£o litor√Ęnea do reservat√≥rio durante o dia, o que leva a crer que o parasitismo pode modificar o comportamento dos cop√©podos tornando-os mais acess√≠veis √† preda√ß√£o.17918

    DETERMINANTES SOCIOCOMPORTAMENTALES Y VULNERABILIDAD DE NI√ĎOS DE LA EDUCACI√ďN INICIAL A LA PEDICULOSIS

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    El espacio escolar est√° asociado a alta infestaci√≥n por el piojo de cabeza. Este trabajo tuvo la finalidad de caracterizar los determinantes sociocomportamentales y la vulnerabilidad de preescolares a la infestaci√≥n por Pediculus humanus capitis en el municipio de Aracaju, estado de Sergipe. La investigaci√≥n de campo exploratoria fue realizada de junio a agosto de 2014, en la microrregi√≥n del barrio Augusto Franco, en el dominio familiar (unidades dom√©sticas) y escolar (Escuela Municipal de Ense√Īanza Inicial). El an√°lisis de los datos utiliz√≥ la estad√≠stica descriptiva, test Chicuadrado de Pearson y OddsRatio. Aproximadamente 64% (30/47) de los entrevistados ganan hasta 1 salario m√≠nimo y poseen vivienda propia; la cuantidad de hijos est√° entre 2 y 3 ni√Īos. Aproximadamente 30% tuvieron piojo, de estas, 40% realizaron tratamiento medicamentoso y 13,3% quitaron manualmente. Cuestiones como la pediculosis deben ser consideradas en el contexto de la situaci√≥n, con metodolog√≠a participativa y dial√≥gica en el contexto familiar y escolar.O espa√ßo escolar √© associado √† alta infesta√ß√£o pelo piolho de cabe√ßa. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar¬†os determinantes sociocomportamentais e a vulnerabilidade de pr√©-escolares √† infesta√ß√£o por Pediculus¬†humanus capitis no munic√≠pio de Aracaju, estado de Sergipe. A pesquisa de campo explorat√≥ria foi realizada de¬†junho a agosto de 2014, na microrregi√£o do bairro Augusto Franco, no dom√≠nio familiar (unidades dom√©sticas)¬†e escolar (Escola Municipal de Ensino Infantil). A an√°lise dos dados utilizou a estat√≠stica descritiva, teste Quiquadradode Pearson e Odds Ratio. Aproximadamente de 64% (30/47) dos entrevistados recebem at√© 1 sal√°rio¬†m√≠nimo e possuem resid√™ncia pr√≥pria, a quantidade de filhos foi entre 2 e 3 crian√ßas. 30% tiveram piolho, destas,¬†40% realizaram tratamento medicamentoso e 13,3% cata√ß√£o manual. Quest√Ķes como a pediculose devem ser¬†consideradas no contexto da situa√ß√£o, com metodologia participativa e dial√≥gica no contexto familiar e escolar.Schools have a high rate of head lice infestations. The aim of this study was to characterize the socio-behavioral determinants and the vulnerability of early childhood education students to infestations by Pediculus humanus capitis in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe state. The exploratory field study was conducted from June to August 2014, in the micro region of the Augusto Franco neighborhood, in the family domain (households) and school (Municipal Early Childhood Education Center). Data analysis used descriptive statistics, Pearson‚Äôs Chi-square test and Odds Ratio. Approximately 64% (30/47) of respondents receive up to 1 minimum wage and have their own residence, the number of children was between 2 and 3 per interviewee. 30% had lice, of these, 40% were treated with medication and 13.3% used manual removal. Issues such as lice infestation should be considered in the context of the situation with dialogue and a participatory methodology in the family and school context

    Elementos traço e parasitismo em tilápia do nilo cultivada no sul do Brasil

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    This study evaluated the trace elements and parasitological indices in Nile tilapia examined from two different facilities, named as swine-consorted, using pig manure, and monoculture. For trace element analysis, the fish muscle tissue was collected individually in each facility. Each portion was weighed, dried in a stove at 60¬įC for 48 h and analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). Parasitological analysis followed the routine method for parasites collection, quantification and identification. The predominant element was zinc (Zn) followed by iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) in fish from both facilities. Fish from swine-consorted system had greater values of abundance and mean intensity of trichodinids and fish from monoculture showed higher abundance and mean intensity of monogeneans. Nevertheless, no signs of damage to fish production was observed. The contents of the elements Zn, Fe, As, cooper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) were above of the maximum permitted limits recommended by the Brazilian legislation. ¬© 2016, Instytut Technologii Drewna. All rights reserved

    Schistosomiasis mansoni in urban Northeast Brazil: influence of rainfall regime on the population dynamics of Biomphalaria sp.

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    Introduction Our objective was to evaluate the influence of rainfall regime on the population dynamics of Biomphalaria in a potential urban focus of schistosomiasis in Aracaju, Brazil, during 2009-2010. Methods Snails were collected monthly and were counted, measured and identified; the level of infection and fecal contamination at the sampling sites was determined; rainfall data were obtained. Results High levels of fecal contamination were observed, and the abundance of Biomphalaria glabrata increased during the rainy and post-rainy seasons. The snails' size was variable, and infected snails were identified independently of rainfall. Conclusions These results provide evidence of anthropogenic and climate interference in an urban focus of schistosomiasis in the Aracaju metropolitan area.65465
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