6,045 research outputs found

    Enhancement of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate activity at acoustic cavitation bubble interfaces

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    Acoustic cavitation driven by ultrasonic irradiation decomposes and mineralizes the recalcitrant perfluorinated surfactants perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup is the rate-determining step. In this study, we examine the sonochemical adsorption of PFOX, where X = S for PFOS and A for PFOA, by determining kinetic order and absolute rates over an initial PFOX concentration range of 20 nM to 200 μM. Sonochemical PFOX kinetics transition from pseudo-first-order at low initial concentrations, [PFOX]_i 40 μM, as the bubble interface sites are saturated. At PFOX concentrations below 100 μM, concentration-dependent rates were modeled with Langmuir−Hinshelwood (LH) kinetics. Empirically determined rate maximums, V_(Max)^(−PFOA) = 2230 ± 560 nM min^−1 and V_(Max)^(−PFOS) = 230 ± 60 nM min^−1, were used in the LH model, and sonochemical surface activities were estimated to be K_(Sono)^(PFOS) = 120000 M^−1 and K_(Sono)^(PFOA) = 28500 M^−1, 60 and 80 times greater than equilibrium surface activities, K_(Eq)^(PFOS) and K_(Eq)^(PFOA). These results suggest enhanced sonochemical degradation rates for PFOX when the bubble interface is undersaturated. The present results are compared to previously reported sonochemical kinetics of nonvolatile surfactants

    A direct optical method for the study of grain boundary melting

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    The structure and evolution of grain boundaries underlies the nature of polycrystalline materials. Here we describe an experimental apparatus and light reflection technique for measuring disorder at grain boundaries in optically clear material, in thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach is demonstrated on ice bicrystals. Crystallographic orientation is measured for each ice sample. The type and concentration of impurity in the liquid can be controlled and the temperature can be continuously recorded and controlled over a range near the melting point. The general methodology is appropriate for a wide variety of materials.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures, updated with minor changes made to published versio

    Combustion characteristics of compression ignition engine operating on rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends

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    ArticleThe effect of biofuels on the operational parameters of the combustion engines, such as performance parameters or emission production, are monitored often. These changes are, however, based on the effect of biofuels on the course of combustion pressure inside the combustion chamber. The contribution deals with the effect of rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends on the combustion characteristics of turbocharged compression ignition engine. The course of cylinder pressure was monitored and analysed and heat release rate was calculated. The brake specific fuel consumption, indicated and brake thermal efficiency were calculated and evaluated, in-cylinder temperature and ignition delay were also evaluated. As a test fuels a 5% and 20% concentrations of rapeseed oil in diesel fuel were selected while 100% diesel fuel was used as a reference. Turbocharged CI engine Zetor 1204 located in the tractor Zetor Forterra 8642 was used for measurement. During measurement the rotation speed of the engine was kept constant at approx. 1950 min-1 and the load of the engine was selected at approx. 20, 60, 80 and 100%. The results showed decreased cylinder peak pressure, decreased intensity of heat release rate and earlier end of combustion in all tested loads for both tested fuel blends in comparison with diesel fuel, while the lowest peak cylinder pressure was reached using fuel with 5% rapeseed oil. Fuel with 5% rapeseed oil also showed highest indicated efficiency. Ignition delay was found shorter with both of the blended fuels in comparison with diesel fuel

    Effect of sunflower and rapeseed oil on production of solid particles and performance of diesel engine

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    ArticleThe development of biofuels for compression ignition engines is heading primarily to utilization of vegetable oils. Combusting of 100% vegetable oil in unmodified CI engine is usually not possible due to higher viscosity of the vegetable oil. In order to use 100% vegetable oil in CI engine the oil needs to be preheated, esterified or hydrotreated. Alternatively, in orde r to use raw vegetable oil in CI engine without preheating it is possible to use vegetable oil – diesel fuel blends or vegetable oil – butanol – diesel fuel blends in order to lower the viscosity of the fuel. The contribution focuses on comparison of the e ffect of sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils on operational parameters of the turbocharged compression ignition engine, especially on production of solid particles. The measurement was carried out according to standardized NRSC test cycle. 5% and 20% con centration of vegetable oils in diesel fuel were used as a test fuels for the measurement while the diesel fuel was used as a reference. The count and size of solid particles were measured by means of EEPS particle analyser. Based on the measured values it can be stated that the slight increase of performance parameters occurred with strong effect on emissions production, especially on production of solid particles

    COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TIME SERIES AND MULTIPLE REGRESSION FOR MODELING DEPENDENCE OF CATTLE BODY TEMPERATURE ON ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES DURING HEAT STRESS

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    During the summer, a challenging thermal environment is known to cause a significant reduction in food intake, growth, milk production, reproduction and even death in cattle. In this study, we attempt to characterize the relationship of cattle body temperature with several environmental variables, such as air temperature, soil surface temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, incoming and outgoing short and long wave radiation. For these variables, the measurements taken over time are correlated. This places severe restrictions on the applicability of many conventional statistical methods that depend on the assumption of independent and identically distributed errors. In addition to these assumptions, there is serious collinearity among several weather variables and the variables are not stationary. Commonly used multiple regression models can be misleading when predictor variables are stochastic and issues of collinearity and non-stationary are ignored. In this paper, time series analysis is used as a tool to investigate the adequacy of classical regression models. Various aspects of dynamics of cattle body temperature and its relationship to environmental variables are discussed using the frequency and time domain analysis. Finally, we present a detailed approach for fitting cattle body temperature using a transfer function model with multiple environmental variables as inputs

    Dynamics of explosive degassing of magma: Observations of fragmenting two-phase flows

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    Liquid explosions, generated by rapid degassing of strongly supersaturated liquids, have been investigated in the laboratory with a view to understanding the basic physical processes operating during bubble nucleation and growth and the subsequent behavior of the expanding two-phase flow. Experiments are carried out in a shock tube and are monitored by high-speed photography and pressure transducers. Theoretical CO_2 supersaturations up to 455 times the ambient saturation concentration are generated by a chemical reaction; K_2CO_3 solution is suddenly injected into an excess of HCl solution in such a way as to mix the two solutions rapidly. Immediately after the injection event, a bubble nucleation delay of a few milliseconds is followed by rapid nucleation and explosive expansion of CO_2 bubbles forming a highly heterogeneous foam. Enhanced diffusion due to advection in the flow coupled with continuous mixing of the reactants, and hence on-going bubble nucleation after injection, generates an increasingly accelerating flow until the reactants become depleted at peak accelerations of around 150 g and velocities of about 15 m s^(−1). Stretching of the accelerating two-phase mixture enhances the mixing. Liberation of CO_2 vapor is spatially inhomogeneous leading to ductile fragmentation occurring throughout the flow in regions of greatest gas release as the consequence of the collision and stretching of fluid streams. The violence of the eruptions is controlled by using different concentrations of the HCl and K_2CO_3 solutions, which alters the CO_2 supersaturation and yield and also the efficiency of the mixing process. Peak acceleration is proportional to theoretical supersaturation. Pressure measurements at the base of the shock tube show an initial nucleation delay and a pressure pulse related to the onset of explosive bubble formation. These chemically induced explosions differ from liquid explosions created in other experiments. In explosions caused by sudden depressurization of CO_2-saturated water, the bubbles nucleate uniformly throughout the liquid in a single nucleation event. Subsequent bubble growth causes the two-phase mixture to be accelerated upward at nearly constant accelerations. Explosively boiling liquids, in which heterogeneous nucleation is suppressed, experience an evaporation wave which propagates down into the liquid column at constant average velocity. Fragmentation occurs at the sharply defined leading edge of the wavefront. The chemical flows effectively simulate highly explosive volcanic eruptions as they are comparable in terms of flow densities, velocities, accelerations, and in the large range of scales present. The large accelerations cause strong extensional strain and longitudinal deformation. Comparable deformation rates in volcanic systems could be sufficient to approach conditions for brittle fragmentation. Tube pumice is a major component of plinian deposits and ignimbrites and preserves evidence of accelerating flow conditions

    Connectivity and tree structure in finite graphs

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    Considering systems of separations in a graph that separate every pair of a given set of vertex sets that are themselves not separated by these separations, we determine conditions under which such a separation system contains a nested subsystem that still separates those sets and is invariant under the automorphisms of the graph. As an application, we show that the kk-blocks -- the maximal vertex sets that cannot be separated by at most kk vertices -- of a graph GG live in distinct parts of a suitable tree-decomposition of GG of adhesion at most kk, whose decomposition tree is invariant under the automorphisms of GG. This extends recent work of Dunwoody and Kr\"on and, like theirs, generalizes a similar theorem of Tutte for k=2k=2. Under mild additional assumptions, which are necessary, our decompositions can be combined into one overall tree-decomposition that distinguishes, for all kk simultaneously, all the kk-blocks of a finite graph.Comment: 31 page

    Generalized Interpolation Material Point Approach to High Melting Explosive with Cavities Under Shock

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    Criterion for contacting is critically important for the Generalized Interpolation Material Point(GIMP) method. We present an improved criterion by adding a switching function. With the method dynamical response of high melting explosive(HMX) with cavities under shock is investigated. The physical model used in the present work is an elastic-to-plastic and thermal-dynamical model with Mie-Gr\"uneissen equation of state. We mainly concern the influence of various parameters, including the impacting velocity vv, cavity size RR, etc, to the dynamical and thermodynamical behaviors of the material. For the colliding of two bodies with a cavity in each, a secondary impacting is observed. Correspondingly, the separation distance DD of the two bodies has a maximum value DmaxD_{\max} in between the initial and second impacts. When the initial impacting velocity vv is not large enough, the cavity collapses in a nearly symmetric fashion, the maximum separation distance DmaxD_{\max} increases with vv. When the initial shock wave is strong enough to collapse the cavity asymmetrically along the shock direction, the variation of DmaxD_{\max} with vv does not show monotonic behavior. Our numerical results show clear indication that the existence of cavities in explosive helps the creation of ``hot spots''.Comment: Figs.2,4,7,11 in JPG format; Accepted for publication in J. Phys. D: Applied Physic

    The Association of Early Dietary Supplementation with Vitamin E with the Incidence of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice on a C57BL/6 Background

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    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if prophylactic ingestion of a diet rich in vitamin E would prevent  or impede the development of ulcerative dermatitis in mice on a C57BL/6 background. Mice were fed after  weaning a standard mouse diet, vitamin E (99 IU/kg), or a mouse diet fortified with vitamin E (3000 IU/  kg). Cases of ulcerative dermatitis were recorded by individuals (i.e. aware of) the diet assignment. The  incidence of ulcerative dermatitis in a retrospective cohort of mice on standard diet was compared with the  group on the diet fortified with vitamin E. Age was associated with ulcerative dermatitis in standard diet  and vitamin E fortified diet groups, r = 0.43, p-value < 0.0001 and r = 0.18, p-value < 0.02, respectively.  The average age of incidence for ulcerative dermatitis in the mice fed the standard diet was 89 weeks and  for the mice fed the vitamin E diet it was 41 weeks. The unadjusted odds ratio comparing the incidence of  ulcerative dermatitis between the two diet groups was 4.6 with a 95% confidence interval of (2.44, 8.58),  x2 p-value < 0.0001. Therefore, there was an association between the diets and ulcerative dermatitis, with  the mice on the vitamin E fortified diet having almost five times the odds of having ulcerative dermatitis  compared with mice on the standard diet. Incidence of ulcerative dermatitis was not influenced by sex or  genotype. Our study results show that a diet fortified in vitamin E initiated at weaning does not prevent or  impede the development of ulcerative dermatitis in mice on a C57BL/6 background and on the contrary  accelerate development when administered to young mice.

    Genetic analysis of multiple synchronous lesions of the colon adenoma–carcinoma sequence

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    The colorectal adenoma–carcinoma sequence represents a well-known paradigm for the sequential development of cancer driven by the accumulation of genomic defects. Although the colorectal adenoma–carcinoma sequence is well investigated, studies about tumours of different dignity co-existent in the same patient are seldom. In order to address the distribution of genetic alterations in different lesions of the same patient, we coincidently investigated carcinomas, adenomas and aberrant crypt foci in patients with sporadic colon cancer. By utilizing polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformation polymorphism, heteroduplex-analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, protein truncation test and sequencing techniques we looked for mutations and microsatellite instability of APC, H- ras, K- ras, p53, DCC and the DNA repair genes hMLH1/hMSH2. In accordance with the suggested adenoma–carcinoma sequence of the colon, four patients reflected the progressive accumulation of genetic defects in synchronously appearing tumours during carcinogenesis. However, two patients with non-hereditary malignomas presented different genetic instabilities in different but synchronously appearing tumours suggesting non-clonal growth under almost identical conditions of the environment. Thus, sporadically manifesting multiple lesions of the colon were not necessarily driven by similar genetic mechanisms. Premalignant lesions may transform into malignant tumours starting from different types of genetic instability, which indicates independent and simultaneous tumorigenesis within the same organ. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaig
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