125 research outputs found

    The prevalence of phantom limb pain and associated risk factors in people with amputations: a systematic review protocol

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    Background The prevalence of phantom limb pain (PLP) in people with amputations is unclear because of the conflicting reports across the literature. It is proposed that the conflicting reports on the prevalence of PLP are a consequence of variations in the time period during which the studies were undertaken, countries in which the studies were conducted and recruitment processes implemented during collection of epidemiological data. In consideration of these factors, we aim to gather and critically appraise relevant literature to determine the prevalence estimate of and risk factors for PLP in people with amputations. Methods We will use a customised search strategy containing relevant words and terms to search the following databases: MEDLINE/PubMed (via EBSCOhost), PsycINFO (via EBSCOhost), PsycArticles, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (via EBSCOhost), Africa-Wide Information (via EBSCOhost), Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition (via EBSCOhost) SCOPUS, Web of Science and Academic Search Premier (via EBSCOhost). The risk of bias assessment will be conducted using a risk of bias assessment tool for prevalence studies, and data will be extracted using a piloted customised data extraction sheet. Data extracted from individual studies will be entered into Review Manager 5 and assessed for clinical and statistical heterogeneity. Studies will be pooled for meta-analysis using the random-effects model to determine a summary estimate of the prevalence of PLP across included studies. A statistically significant level will be set at p < 0.05. Discussion As far as we know, a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of, and risk factors for PLP in people with amputations has not been conducted. Given the varying reports in the literature, it is necessary to determine an estimate of the prevalence of PLP to generate an informed conclusion on this subject. The results of this review will be published in an internationally accredited journal and used to inform researchers, clinicians, policy-makers and the public about the burden of, and risk factors for PLP. This will be done with a further aim to improve the quality of pain management in society. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD4201809482

    The prevalence and risk factors for phantom limb pain in people with amputations: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Phantom limb pain (PLP)-pain felt in the amputated limb-is often accompanied by significant suffering. Estimates of the burden of PLP have provided conflicting data. To obtain a robust estimate of the burden of PLP, we gathered and critically appraised the literature on the prevalence and risk factors associated with PLP in people with limb amputations. Methods: Articles published between 1980 and July 2019 were identified through a systematic search of the following electronic databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Africa-Wide Information, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Academic Search Premier. Grey literature was searched on databases for preprints. Two reviewers independently conducted the screening of articles, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The meta-analyses were conducted using the random effects model. A statistically significant level for the analyses was set at p<0.05. Results: The pooling of all studies demonstrated a prevalence estimate of 64% [95% CI: 60.01-68.05] with high heterogeneity [I2 = 95.95% (95% CI: 95.10-96.60)]. The prevalence of PLP was significantly lower in developing countries compared to developed countries [53.98% vs 66.55%; p = 0.03]. Persistent pre-operative pain, proximal site of amputation, stump pain, lower limb amputation and phantom sensations were identified as risk factors for PLP. Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis estimates that six of every 10 people with an amputation report PLP-a high and important prevalence of PLP. Healthcare professionals ought to be aware of the high rates of PLP and implement strategies to reduce PLP by addressing known risk factors, specifically those identified by the current study

    Stabilization of Plakoglobin and Enhanced Keratinocyte Cell-Cell Adhesion by Intracellular O -Glycosylation

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    O-Glycosylation modifies and regulates a variety of intracellular proteins. Plakoglobin, which functions in both cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction, is modified by O-glycosylation; however, the significance is unknown. To investigate the functional consequence of plakoglobin O-glycosylation, we cloned and overexpressed in keratinocytes murine O-GlcNAc transferase (mOGT). Over expression of mOGT in murine keratinocytes resulted in (i) glycosylation of plakoglobin and (ii) increased levels of plakoglobin due to post-translational stabilization of plakoglobin. Additionally, overexpression of mOGT in keratinocytes correlated with increased staining for cell-cell adhesion proteins and greater cell-cell adhesion. These observations suggest that O-glycosylation functions to regulate the post-translational stability of plakoglobin and keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion

    A Dual Pathogenic Mechanism Links Tau Acetylation to Sporadic Tauopathy

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    Tau acetylation has recently emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule (MT)-binding region (MTBR), suggesting acetylation could regulate both normal and pathological tau functions. Here, we combined biochemical and cell-based approaches to uncover a dual pathogenic mechanism mediated by tau acetylation. We show that acetylation specifically at residues K280/K281 impairs tau-mediated MT stabilization, and enhances the formation of fibrillar tau aggregates, highlighting both loss and gain of tau function. Full-length acetylation-mimic tau showed increased propensity to undergo seed-dependent aggregation, revealing a potential role for tau acetylation in the propagation of tau pathology. We also demonstrate that methylene blue, a reported tau aggregation inhibitor, modulates tau acetylation, a novel mechanism of action for this class of compounds. Our study identifies a potential “two-hit” mechanism in which tau acetylation disengages tau from MTs and also promotes tau aggregation. Thus, therapeutic approaches to limit tau K280/K281 acetylation could simultaneously restore MT stability and ameliorate tau pathology in AD and related tauopathies

    Modulating pain thresholds through classical conditioning

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    Background Classical conditioning has frequently been shown to be capable of evoking fear of pain and avoidance behavior in the context of chronic pain. However, whether pain itself can be conditioned has rarely been investigated and remains a matter of debate. Therefore, the present study investigated whether pain threshold ratings can be modified by the presence of conditioned non-nociceptive sensory stimuli in healthy participant. Methods In 51 healthy volunteers, pain threshold to electrocutaneous stimuli was determined prior to participation in a simultaneous conditioning paradigm. Participants underwent an acquisition phase in which one non-painful vibrotactile stimulus (CS+) was repeatedly paired with a painful electrocutaneous stimulus, whereas a second vibrotactile stimulus of the same quality and intensity (CS−) was paired with a non-painful electrocutaneous stimulus. Stimulation was provided on the lower back with close proximity between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. In the test phase, electrocutaneous stimuli at the individually-set threshold intensity were simultaneously delivered together with either a CS+ or CS−. Pain intensity ratings were obtained after each trial; expectancy ratings were obtained after each block. The primary outcome was the percentage of test stimuli that were rated as painful. Results Test stimuli were more likely to be rated as painful when they were paired with the CS+ than when they were paired with the CS−. This effect was not influenced by contingency awareness, nor by expectancies or mood states. Discussion The findings support the notion that the judgement of an event being painful or non-painful can be influenced by classical conditioning and corroborate the possible role of associative learning in the development and maintenance of chronic pain

    High Elmo1 expression aggravates and low Elmo1 expression prevents diabetic nephropathy

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    About one-third of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus develop nephropathy, which often progresses to end-stage renal diseases. The present study demonstrates that below-normal Elmo1 expression in mice ameliorates the albuminuria and glomerular histological changes resulting from long-standing type 1 diabetes, whereas above-normal Elmo1 expression makes both worse. Increasing Elmo1 expression leads to aggravation of oxidative stress markers and enhances the expression of fibrogenic genes. Suppressing Elmo1 action in human patients could be a promising option for treating/preventing the progressive deterioration of renal function in diabetes

    A Laminin G-EGF-Laminin G Module in Neurexin IV Is Essential for the Apico-Lateral Localization of Contactin and Organization of Septate Junctions

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    Septate junctions (SJs) display a unique ultrastructural morphology with ladder-like electron densities that are conserved through evolution. Genetic and molecular analyses have identified a highly conserved core complex of SJ proteins consisting of three cell adhesion molecules Neurexin IV, Contactin, and Neuroglian, which interact with the cytoskeletal FERM domain protein Coracle. How these individual proteins interact to form the septal arrays that create the paracellular barrier is poorly understood. Here, we show that point mutations that map to specific domains of neurexin IV lead to formation of fewer septae and disorganization of SJs. Consistent with these observations, our in vivo domain deletion analyses identified the first Laminin G-EGF-Laminin G module in the extracellular region of Neurexin IV as necessary for the localization of and association with Contactin. Neurexin IV protein that is devoid of its cytoplasmic region is able to create septae, but fails to form a full complement of SJs. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that specific domains in Neurexin IV are required for protein-protein interactions and organization of SJs. Given the molecular conservation of SJ proteins across species, our studies may provide insights into how vertebrate axo-glial SJs are organized in myelinated axons

    Macrophages sustain HIV replication in vivo independently of T cells

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    Macrophages have long been considered to contribute to HIV infection of the CNS; however, a recent study has contradicted this early work and suggests that myeloid cells are not an in vivo source of virus production. Here, we addressed the role of macrophages in HIV infection by first analyzing monocytes isolated from viremic patients and patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment. We were unable to find viral DNA or viral outgrowth in monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. To determine whether tissue macrophages are productively infected, we used 3 different but complementary humanized mouse models. Two of these models (bone marrow/liver/thymus [BLT] mice and T cell–only mice [ToM]) have been previously described, and the third model was generated by reconstituting immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells that were devoid of human T cells (myeloid-only mice [MoM]) to specifically evaluate HIV replication in this population. Using MoM, we demonstrated that macrophages can sustain HIV replication in the absence of T cells; HIV-infected macrophages are distributed in various tissues including the brain; replication-competent virus can be rescued ex vivo from infected macrophages; and infected macrophages can establish de novo infection. Together, these results demonstrate that macrophages represent a genuine target for HIV infection in vivo that can sustain and transmit infection

    Trace CO2 capture by an ultramicroporous physisorbent with low water affinity.

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    CO2 accumulation in confined spaces represents an increasing environmental and health problem. Trace CO2 capture remains an unmet challenge because human health risks can occur at 1000 parts per million (ppm), a level that challenges current generations of chemisorbents (high energy footprint and slow kinetics) and physisorbents (poor selectivity for CO2, especially versus water vapor, and/or poor hydrolytic stability). Here, dynamic breakthrough gas experiments conducted upon the ultramicroporous material SIFSIX-18-Ni-β reveal trace (1000 to 10,000 ppm) CO2 removal from humid air. We attribute the performance of SIFSIX-18-Ni-β to two factors that are usually mutually exclusive: a new type of strong CO2 binding site and hydrophobicity similar to ZIF-8. SIFSIX-18-Ni-β also offers fast sorption kinetics to enable selective capture of CO2 over both N2 (S CN) and H2O (S CW), making it prototypal for a previously unknown class of physisorbents that exhibit effective trace CO2 capture under both dry and humid conditions
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