730 research outputs found

    Engaging young offenders in novel community-based initiatives in professional sports settings: an exploration of how Everton in The Community’s Safe Hands programme might support the resettlement of young prison leavers and the potential for delivering a programme like Safe Hands in Scotland

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    Supporting the resettlement of young prison leavers emerged as a central criminal justice policy challenge in the 21st Century. Most young people in prison reoffend or are reincarcerated after release. While the role of sport in seeking to reduce youth crime has grown in recent years, most literature and programmes have concentrated on diverting young people away from offending or prison-based initiatives, with less focus on the role of sport or sporting settings in supporting resettlement. The first strand of this thesis explores how the Safe Hands programme, delivered by Everton in the Community (EiTC), believed to be the first official resettlement initiative delivered by a Football in The Community (FiTC) organisation, supports young prison leavers’ resettlement. Drawing on interviews with current and former participants and EiTC staff, this thesis argues four aspects of Safe Hands are key to promoting resettlement: its setting; structure; staff; and activities. These are presented in a logic model which hypothesises connections between programme components and outcomes. Additionally, individual, organisational, and system level barriers to delivering Safe Hands are identified. These barriers are discussed from a systems thinking perspective, offering a critique of current resettlement, particularly a lack of synergy among services for young prison leavers and how such programmes can be influenced by system level changes, such as economic austerity. The second strand of this thesis builds on the Safe Hands research by exploring the potential for delivering a similar programme in Scotland, where equally poor outcomes for young prison leavers are evident. Using interviews with stakeholders from the Scottish Throughcare sector, including young people in prison, and from the Scottish Football in the Community (SFiTC) industry, it identifies potential barriers and facilitators to both delivery and engagement of young prison leavers. Based on these findings, this thesis argues that Safe Hands affords strong potential for supporting the resettlement of young prison leavers and there is nothing in the Scottish context to suggest a similar programme could not be delivered. However, an SFiTC would need a certain level of capacity and capability to deliver a programme like Safe Hands and some modifications may be required. Recommendations include: suggesting wider adoption of programmes like Safe Hands across the UK, including those which consider using different sporting settings; and that resettlement systems would benefit from being subject to a needs assessment to clarify how resettlement outcomes for young prison leavers might be improved, including steps to ameliorate the wider social and economic constraints on their lives

    Extreme loss of immunoreactive p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 during routine fixation of primary breast cancer

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    INTRODUCTION: Very few studies have investigated whether the time elapsed between surgical resection and tissue fixation or the difference between core-cut and excision biopsies impact on immunohistochemically measured biomarkers, including phosphorylated proteins in primary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to characterise the differences in immunoreactivity of common biomarkers that may occur (1) as a result of tissue handling at surgery and (2) between core-cuts and resected tumours. METHODS: Core-cuts taken from surgical breast cancer specimens immediately after resection (sample A) and after routine X-ray of the excised tumour (sample B) were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded and compared with the routinely fixed resection specimen (sample C). The variation in immunohistochemical expression of Ki67, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 were investigated. RESULTS: Twenty-one tissue sets with adequate tumour were available. Median time between collection of core-cuts A and B was 30 minutes (range, 20 to 80 minutes). None of the markers showed significant differences between samples A and B. Similarly, Ki67, ER, PgR and HER2 did not differ significantly between core-cuts and main resection specimen, although there was a trend for lower resection values for ER (P = 0.06). However, p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 were markedly lower in resections than core-cuts (median, 27 versus 101 and 69 versus 193, respectively; both P < 0.0001 [two-sided]). This difference was significantly greater in mastectomy than in lumpectomy specimens for p-Erk1/2 (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The delay in fixation in core-cuts taken after postoperative X-ray of resection specimens has no significant impact on expression of Ki67, ER, PgR, HER2, p-Akt or p-Erk1/2. However, extreme loss of phospho-staining can occur during routine fixation of resection specimens. These differences are likely attributable to suboptimal fixation and may have major repercussions for clinical research involving these markers

    Predictors of Indoor Air Concentrations in Smoking and Non-Smoking Residences

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    Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone) were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71 homes participating in both seasons. In addition, data for relative humidity, temperature, air exchange rates, housing characteristics and occupants’ activities during sampling were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct season-specific models for the air pollutants. Where smoking was a major contributor to indoor concentrations, separate models were constructed for all homes and for those homes with no cigarette smoke exposure. The housing characteristics and occupants’ activities investigated in this study explained between 11% and 53% of the variability in indoor air pollutant concentrations, with ventilation, age of home and attached garage being important predictors for many pollutants

    Combining mirtazapine with SSRIs or SNRIs for treatment-resistant depression: The MIR RCT

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    Background: Depression is usually managed in primary care and antidepressants are often the first-line treatment, but only half of those treated respond to a single antidepressant. Objectives: To investigate whether or not combining mirtazapine with serotonin‚Äďnoradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants results in better patient outcomes and more efficient NHS care than SNRI or SSRI therapy alone in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Design: The MIR trial was a two-parallel-group, multicentre, pragmatic, placebo-controlled randomized trial with allocation at the level of the individual. Setting: Participants were recruited from primary care in Bristol, Exeter, Hull/York and Manchester/Keele. Participants: Eligible participants were aged ‚Č• 18 years; were taking a SSRI or a SNRI antidepressant for at least 6 weeks at an adequate dose; scored ‚Č• 14 points on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); were adherent to medication; and met the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, criteria for depression. Interventions: Participants were randomised using a computer-generated code to either oral mirtazapine or a matched placebo, starting at a dose of 15 mg daily for 2 weeks and increasing to 30 mg daily for up to 12 months, in addition to their usual antidepressant. Participants, their general practitioners (GPs) and the research team were blind to the allocation. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was depression symptoms at 12 weeks post randomization compared with baseline, measured as a continuous variable using the BDI-II. Secondary outcomes (at 12, 24 and 52 weeks) included response, remission of depression, change in anxiety symptoms, adverse events (AEs), quality of life, adherence to medication, health and social care use and cost-effectiveness. Outcomes were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. A qualitative study explored patients‚Äô views and experiences of managing depression and GPs‚Äô views on prescribing a second antidepressant. Results: There were 480 patients randomised to the trial (mirtazapine and usual care, n = 241; placebo and usual care, n = 239), of whom 431 patients (89.8%) were followed up at 12 weeks. BDI-II scores at 12 weeks were lower in the mirtazapine group than the placebo group after adjustment for baseline BDI-II score and minimisation and stratification variables [difference ‚Äď1.83 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) ‚Äď3.92 to 0.27 points; p = 0.087]. This was smaller than the minimum clinically important difference and the CI included the null. The difference became smaller at subsequent time points (24 weeks: ‚Äď0.85 points, 95% CI ‚Äď3.12 to 1.43 points; 12 months: 0.17 points, 95% CI ‚Äď2.13 to 2.46 points). More participants in the mirtazapine group withdrew from the trial medication, citing mild AEs (46 vs. 9 participants). Conclusions: This study did not find convincing evidence of a clinically important benefit for mirtazapine in addition to a SSRI or a SNRI antidepressant over placebo in primary care patients with TRD. There was no evidence that the addition of mirtazapine was a cost-effective use of NHS resources. GPs and patients were concerned about adding an additional antidepressant. Limitations: Voluntary unblinding for participants after the primary outcome at 12 weeks made interpretation of longer-term outcomes more difficult. Future work: Treatment-resistant depression remains an area of important, unmet need, with limited evidence of effective treatments. Promising interventions include augmentation with atypical antipsychotics and treatment using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Impacts of the Tropical Pacific/Indian Oceans on the Seasonal Cycle of the West African Monsoon